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VILLA AND COTTAGE 

ARCHITECTURE. 



VILLA AND COTTAGE 
ABCHITECTTTKE: 



SELECT EXAMPLES OF 



COUNTRY AND SUBURBAN RESIDENCES 



RECENTLY ERECTED. 



WITH 



A FULL DESCRIPTIVE NOTICE 

OF EACH BUILDING. 



■> COMBI NATIONS. 



■('DENT L 1 N ACQ U A I NT ED WITH THE ATTEMPTS OF FORMER ADVENTURERS, la ALWAT3 APT TO OVER- RAT F. ni.1 OWN AI1TUT1E3; TO MISTAKF. THE 
i FOB DISCOVERIES C 



>NE OF THE GREAT MARKS OF OENIUS ; BUT IF WE CONSULT 
THE INVENTIONS OF OTHERS THAT WE LEARN TO INVENT ; AS 
of Sir Jaihua Reijaoldt. 




LONDON: 
BLACKIE & SON, PATERNOSTER ROW: 

GLASGOW AND EDINBURGH. 
1868. 



GLASGOW: 
W. G. BLACKH? AND CO., PRINT2BS, 
V1LL AFIELD. 



CONTENTS. 

BUILDINGS ILLUSTRATED AND DESCRIBED. 




PLATES. 




PAGE. 




I. V. 


FERN CLIFF VILLA, Wemysa Bay, Firth of Clyde; — J. T. Rochead, Architect, 


1 


VI- VIII. 


OAKLEIGH VILLA, Blairmore, Lochlong; — John Gordon, Architect, 


5 


IX- XI. 


COTTAGE AT HOLLY VILLAGE, Highgate, near London; — H. A. Darbishire, 








9 


XII- XV. 


SEYMOUR LODGE, Cove, Locldong;— A. & G. Thomson, Architects, 


12 


xvi. xvn. . 


VILLA AT TRINITY, near Edinburgh; — J. C. Walker, Architect, 


15 


XVIII- XXI. 


CRAIG AILEY VILLA, Kilcreggan, Firth of Clyde; — A. & G. Thomson, Architects, 


18 


XXII. XXIII. 






XXIV. . 


GATES AND GARDEN WALL (Ferndean Villa), Cove, Lochlong; — A. & G. 










XXV. . 


COTTAGE AT LUNDIN LINKS, Fifeshire; — J. C. Walker, Architect, 


27 


XXVI. . 


COTTAGES AT THIRSK, Yorkshire ;— E. B. Lamb, Architect 


29 


XXVII. XXVIII. . 


VILLA-CARENO, Tufnell Park, Holloway, London;— George Truefitt, Architect, 


31 


XXIX. . 


VILLA AT GRANGE, Edinburgh ;— R. Thornton Shiells, Architect, . 


35 


XXX.- XXXV. 


COTTAGE ORNE, Mill Green, Essex (with an Alternative Design) ;— H. E. Kendall, 






Junr., Architect, ............ 


38 


XXXVI. 


ENTRANCE GATES or the Cottage Orne (with an Alternative Design); — H. E. 






Kendall, Junr., Architect, 


42 


XXXVII. XXXVIII. 


KINGSMUIR COTTAGE, near Peebles ;— David Cousin, Architect, 


43 


XXXIX.- XIX 


DOUBLE VILLA AT LANGSIDE, near Glasgow; — A. & G. Thomson, Architects, 


45 


XIXl.- xuv. 


GOLD HANGER RECTORY, near Maldon, Essex;— Ewan Christian, Architect, . 


50 


XLV. XLVI. . . 


VILLA AT CROSSHILL, near Glasgow ;— John Baird, Architect, 


54 


xlvii. XLvm . 


CURATE'S HOUSE AT GOTHAM, Nottinghamshire ;— S. Dutton Walker, Architect, 


57 


XLIX. L. 


STRATH COTTAGE, Dumbarton ;-J. T. Rochead, Architect 


61 


II LII. 


VILLA AT GRANTHAM, Nottinghamshire ;— HlNE & Evans, Architects, 


04 


LIII. LIV. . 


VILLA AT DULWICH WOOD PARK, Sydenham Hill, near London;— Banks & 








67 



VI 


CONTENTS. 




PLATES. 


1 




LV. LVI. 


WORCESTER LODGE, Middleton Road, Holloway, London ; — G. TrUEFITT, Architect, 




71 


LV1I. LVIH. 


COTTAGE AT GOV AN, Renfrewshire ; — J. T. Rochead, Architect, 


74 


LIX. LX. 


FRIDAY BRIDGE PARSONAGE, near Wisbech, Cambridgeshire ;— Ewan Christian, 








77 


LXI. 


COTTAGE AT ROSENEATH, Dumbartonshire ;— John Baird, Architect, 


83 


LXII. . 


FARM-HOUSE AT BLUBBERHOUSES, near Harrogate, Yorkshire ;-E. B. Lamb, 






Architect, ......... 


85 


LXIII.-LXV. 


VILLA ON SYDENHAM HILL, near London ;— Banks & Barry, Architects, 


87 


LXVI.-LXXII. . 


HOLMWOOD, Cathcart, Renfrewshire ;— A. & G. Thomson, Architects, 


91 


LXXIII.-LXXV. . 


THE SYCAMORES, Old Trafford, near Manchester; — H. J. Paull, ) 

- ) Architects, 
Oliver Ayliffe, ) 


99 


LXXVI. LXXVII. 


DOUBLE VILLA, Victoria Park, Manchester; — Edward Walters, Architect, 


104 


LXXTLH. LXXIX. 


ROSEBANK VILLA, Barlow Moor, near Manchester;— Speakman & Chari.esworth, 








109 


LXXX. . 


CHIMNEY-PIECES, Holmwood, Cathcart;— A. & G. Thomson, Architects, 


113 



ARCHITECTS WHO HAVE CONTRIBUTED 

TO THIS WOBK. 



Mr. OLIVER AYLIFFE, 

„ JOHN BAIRD, .... 
Messrs. BANKS & BARRY, . 
Mr. EWAN CHRISTIAN, 

„ DAVID COUSIN, . . . 

„ H. A. DARBISHIRE, 

„ JOHN GORDON, .... 
Messes. HINE & EVANS, . 
Mr. H. E. KENDALL, Junr., 

„ E. B. LAMB, 

„ H. J. PAULL, 

„ J. T. ROCHEAD, .... 

„ R. THORNTON SHIELLS, 
Messrs. SPEAKMAN & CHARLES WORTH, 
A. & G. THOMSON, . 

Mr. GEORGE TRTEFITT, 
„ J. C. WALKER, . ... 

,, S. DUTTON WALKER, . 
„ EDWARD WALTERS, 



Manchester, 

Glasgow, 

London, . 

London, . 

Edinburgh, 

London, . 

Glasgow, 

Nottingham, 

London, . 

London, . 

Manchester, 

Glasgow, 

Edinburgh, 

Manchester, 

G LASGOW, 

London, . 
Edinburgh, 
Nottingham, 
m ascii ester, 



Plates lxxiii.-lxxv. 

xlv. ZLVL ami LXL 
Lin. liv. and lxiii.-lxv. 
xlii.- xliv. and lix. lx. 

XXXVII. XXXVIII. 
IX.-XI. 
VI.-VIIL 

xxii. xxm. and LL lii. 
xxx.-xxxvi. 
xxvi. and lxii. 

LXXIII.-LXXV. 

i -v.: xlix. l. and lvii. lviil 
xxrx. 

LXXVtll. LXXIX. 

xii. -xv.: xvni.-xxi. : xxiv. : xxxix.- 

xli.: lxvi.-lxxii. and lxxx. 
xxvn. xxviii. and LV. LVI. 
xvi. xvn. and xxv. 

XLVII. XLVIII. 
LXXVI. LXXVII. 



VILLA AND COTTAGE 

ARCHITECTURE. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 




DEMAND has often been expressed for additions to the existing 
published works devoted to detailed illustration of modern build- 
ings serviceable as models in future architecture. That demand 
it has been imputed to the architects of Great Britain that they 
are chary of responding to ; and the alleged indifference to advantages, private 
and public, that are calculated to accrue from a dissemination of representa- 
tions and written particulars of executed designs, has been contrasted with 
the readiness of continental architects to publish elaborate monographies of 
their chief productions. Such publications, added to and multiplied, eventually 
become a body of example and precedent returning the greatest benefit to the 
individual professor and contributor to the literature of his art, at the same 
time that they form material essential to growth of the art itself. Hitherto, 
the chief published works emanating from the profession, on this side the 
Channel, have been either designs having no reference to building accomplished 
or intended, or representations of structures and decorative details of bygone 
periods ; or they have consisted, in each case, of little more than a single plan 
in addition to a pictorial view, — affording a mere instalment of the explanation 
desired, and sometimes even conveying, through the partial illustration, erro- 
neous impressions as to the effect, the arrangement, and the construction of the 
building. 

This Work aims at answering so much of the demand above referred to as 
is connected with domestic architecture, or house-building, oh a particular scale 
of cost. It also aims at assisting those about to build, in forming their ideas 
as to what may be their particular requirements, and thus to avoid those sug- 
gestions and directions coming after a design has been made, and a builder's 
contract obtained, which form the chief reason why the cost of a building often 



viii 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 



exceeds the estimate. He who has to occupy a house is necessarily an authority 
on the subject of his peculiar wants: it is manifest that he should state his 
ideas on points such as dimensions and number of rooms, and internal communi- 
cations; although a competent professional adviser may be the best judge of 
what will most nearly respond to the expectation of the client — unpractised in 
foreseeing and judging results through the unavoidably-technical medium in 
which an architect's design has its representation. . 

It seemed to the projectors of the Villa and Cottage Architecture that 
whilst there were certain well-known volumes illustrative of palatial residences, 
and many others giving minute particulars of the construction of dwellings 
of the lowest cost and most restricted accommodation, there was a great 
deficiency of publications supplying examples of houses of intermediate cost, 
including habitations of several distinct classes. The present Work is devoted 
to houses of moderate dimensions, or erected at a cost (ascertained in nearly 
every one of the cases) ranging from £500 to £2500, but including some 
examples of more expensive character. The examples are selected from widely- 
separated parts of the country, and are the productions of nineteen different 
architects ; and, whilst all have been found suitable to the requirements of 
domestic comfort, they show considerable diversity in internal arrangements, 
in the structural treatment of materials, and in decorative character, or style 
and ornamental detail. All the examples are productions of recent date. 

It is hoped that the special features of this Work will render it valuable 
peculiarly as a suggestive publication, and as one agent in the production 
of new art and improved methods of building. The publication would ill 
satisfy the views of its pi-ojectors were it used as a copy-book. Whilst the 
intending occupant of a house has his own wants, but whilst on the other 
hand no individual has the right to offend or vitiate the public taste, it is 
out of the response to such special wants that requisite variety of character, 
and general gratification of the public eye, are obtained. 

Every practical architect knows the essential difference of value between 
designs of the two classes already alluded to, and even between the representa- 
tions of designs made with special reference to conditions of a particular site and 
a prescribed cost, but which do not arrive at the stage of execution, and those 
wherein the exemplification is that of accomplished work. The process of design 
is essential to successful arrangement of the features of plan, and to good art: 
to say so is but to assert a truism: but it frequently happens that original 
defects of the initiating process are corrected in building; as also it is found 
that the ornamentation which is apt to characterize in excess mere designs, 
disappears under the ordeal which is the only satisfactory test — the test of use. 

The illustrations given in the Work, and the minute particulars accom- 
panying them, are taken from drawings and data furnished by the architects 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 



ix 



of the buildings. In nearly every case, the plans of every storey, and the 
four sides of the building, are shown, as well as the internal construction; 
whilst details, enlarged, are added where requisite. The sections go to supply 
what has been imputed as a great omission in previous works of the same 
class. The scale adopted for the plans, and for the minor elevations, is fths 
of an inch to 10 feet; whilst that for the principal elevations is, with two 
exceptions, fths of an inch to 10 feet. By the smaller scale employed in part, 
it has been found practicable to illustrate a larger number of buildings than 
could have been otherwise given, without increasing in a corresponding degree 
the extent and the price of the Work; whilst from the uniformity of scale, 
for the plans throughout, the relative sizes of the houses may be approximately 
ascertained at a glance. The descriptive text gives in each case the name 
of the architect, and the date of erection of the building ; it supplies a descrip- 
tion of the locality, site, nature of foundation, and other conditions of the archi- 
tect's work; and it affords fvdl information as to the accommodation provided, 
the internal arrangements, the materials and construction, and the cost. 

Before the engravings were executed, the drawings were subjected to a 
careful scrutiny by the Editor; and, again, the proofs of the engravings were 
scrutinized by the architects and also by the Editor. By this repeated re- 
vision, the plates have been freed from omissions and defects that were in 
many of the drawings as at first supplied. The need for this scrutiny became 
the more apparent as the Work progressed; and, while the repeated correc- 
tion of drawings and engravings tended greatly to retard the progress of publi- 
cation and very materially to increase the outlay on the Work, the Publishers 
were so convinced of the enhanced value thereby imparted, that to the last 
no abatement was made in earnest endeavour to obtain completeness and 
accuracy. What the plates could not supply is to be found in the text. 
This last has been compiled from information furnished in reply to queries 
addressed to the architects ; who had in every case submitted to them proofs 
of the letterpress, before publication, in order that any additions or corrections 
might be made. 

In the descriptions of some of the examples from Scotland, certain terms 
will be met with that are in common use only in the northern part of the 
kingdom. Lest these should occasion any difficulty, a Glossary, which explains 
them, is given. Some discrepancies in the modes of showing certain features, 
as doorways and stairs, may be found in the plates. They have resulted from 
difference in the methods used by the architect-contributors, and, occasionally, 
from a desire not to omit useful information in deference to mere uniformity. 
In a small number of instances the architect has introduced into the drawings 
supplied for this Work, some improvements in the design which a review of 
the completed building had suggested to him. But this has not been per- 
mitted to go to the extent of material deviations. 

c 



.X 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 



In the descriptions mention is made of various building-contrivances, or 
structural arrangements, different from those generally in use in the common 
kind of house. It will be seen that hollow walls are becoming frequent in some 
parts of the country; and the professional reader will consider the relative 
merits of different methods of building them without interfering with the 
"bond" of the brickwork. Modifications of the ordinary form of sliding-sashes 
for windows, are referred to in connection with several of the examples. Thus, 
as amongst the number, in Messrs. Thomson's works the small top-sashes (which 
are fitted with coloured glass) are fixed, and space for admission of air is obtained 
between the upper and the lower sash by having the latter hung so that it can 
descend, as well as be raised in the ordinary manner. Occupants of houses 
possessing this feature, prefer it to the French casements. There is one pecu- 
liarity of the planning in two of the Scotch examples, that is not to be recom- 
mended, namely the servants' bed-closet in the kitchen. Probably, where it 
occurs, the feature is the result of special instructions. 

The judgment of the reader will be most required when making use of 
the statements of cost. Great care has been taken not merely to get the 
items correct, and detailed where the nature of the contract, or contracts, per- 
mitted, but also to mention any matters of locality and materials that would 
affect price. Still, all attention must be paid to the great difference which 
exists between the cost of labour in one part of the country and in another, — 
and especially the difference between London prices and those of the country 
generally. Thus Messrs. Banks and Barry, in writing to the Publishers, esti- 
mated the London prices as at least 25 per cent, higher, in 1867, than the 
prices in Yorkshire or Scotland; and they particularly named a house built 
by them at Great Grimsby that had cost £3148, which, had it been built in 
one of the suburbs of London, would have cost over £4000. The difficulty of 
judging of cost, by examples, is further complicated by the circumstance of the 
great rise that has taken place in prices everywhere during recent years, or 
since the dates of the erection of the buildings as given in the text. This 
rise is particularly referred to in the description of Worcester Lodge ; where 
it is considered to have been, in about eight years, what would be an amount 
approaching to 30 per cent. All London architects do not estimate the 
increase as so enormous; but, generally, it is regarded as in no case less than 
15 per cent. A communication just received from Southampton, estimates the 
increase there, and in neighbouring districts, as " within the last few years 
fully 10 per cent.'' 

The amount stated as cost in each case does not include axij items but 
those of the builder's charges. Of course it does not include land : it generally 
excludes the formation of grounds, and the fencing, about the buildings; and, 
in particular, it does not include the architect's charges. These are an uniform 
per-centage (5 per cent.) on the cost of the building, where the cost exceeds 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 



such an amount as £1000, where travelling-expenses have not to be added, 
where several designs have not been made, where materials of a former building 
are not used, and where the architect does not act as the surveyor, or 
measurer, taking the quantities of materials and work from the drawings and 
specifications for the builder's use in estimating. The measuring- surveyor's 
charge usually comes in as part of the cost of the building; and in London, 
as indeed in many of the chief towns, it is considered most desirable that 
the "surveyor" and the architect should be different individuals. There remains, 
therefore, to be added to the amounts stated as building-cost, not less than 
5 per cent, upon each, as well as the travelling and other extras, being architect's 
expenses, if any. Also, should the services of a clerk-of- works be deemed neces- 
sary, to secure a closeness of superintendence beyond what an architect will be 
bound to afford, — and which may be true economy even where the cost of a 
house falls within the limits kept in view in this publication, — the weekly 
stipend will have to be paid by the owner of the building, although the clerk- 
of-works will act as the deputy or subordinate of the architect. In the case 
of a cost below £1000, the reader may consider the professional charges as 
having been matter of special agreement ; for, most architects would consider 
themselves ill-paid at the rate mentioned, for houses of the different classes 
below the £1000 cost. In fact, it is one problem of the improvement of the 
public taste in architecture, and the extended practice of building of a kind 
conducive to health and comfort, how to induce a general enlistment of the 
services of architects by the offer of remuneration adequate on the one side, 
and not a serious addition to building-cost on the other. 

Where an architect is not employed, the apparent building-cost may be less 
than where he is; but the value of the article obtained is apt to be affected 
not simply by inferior and less artistic appearance, added to defective internal 
arrangements, but by speedy requirements of repairs. There is a wide but 
comprehensive interval of difference between the best work and much of that 
which is called best: that is to say, the interval includes, even comprehending 
what may have been in each of the cases properly specified or described, many 
varieties or qualities of material and workmanship. In short, not any of the 
safeguards against inferior work can be dispensed with advisedly, in building, 
where the natural tendency of self-interest on the one hand is to recognize 
the validity and sufficiency of the doctrine of caveat emptor, and where the 
unaided knowledge on the other, of the buyer, is inadequate for self-protection. 
These safeguards comprise careful selection of the executant of the work, and 
the having a design that has been carefully matured, and that is explained 
as clearly as delineation and description will permit; and, lastly,, competent 
superintendence, sufficient to insure the performance of the letter of the con- 
tract, and adequate to the exposure of deviations from the original intention 
in those details wherein ordinary language does not keep pace with the influx 



xii 



GLOSSARY, 



of qualifying phrases, that give different trade-acceptations in place of the 
one proper or original acceptation of a word, or with the lapse from their true 
meaning of nouns and adjectives employed in trade. 

London, May, 18GS. 



SCOTTISH TECHNICAL TEEMS 

WHICH OCCUR m THIS WORK. 



Back-stile, of door or gate; hanging-stile, or upright 
portion of the framing, where the hinges are. 

Balk: a piece of timber from 4 to 10 inches 
square. 

Baited with lead: secured with molten lead, or 
with pieces of lead driven into a groove or other 
cutting. 

CAMP-CEILED : having part of the ceiling or soffit 
sloped, through the apartment being partly in 
the roof ; tent-formed. 

Chimney-can ■ chimney-pot. 

Chimney-stalk : chimney-stack. 

Conductor: rain-water pipe. 

Cope: coping. 

Corners, in masonry: quoin-stones 

Courser, in masonry: stretcher. 

Dook: wooden plug driven into a mortise cut in 
masonry or brickwork, for fixing joinery to. 

Droved, in stone-dressing: random-tooled; chisel- 
dressed. 

Eaves-run : eaves-gutter. 

Fore-stile, of door or gate; closing- stile, or upright 
portion of the framing, farthest from the hinges. 

Inband- and -upstart, in masonry: quoin-stones 
alternately broad-and-low and narrow-and-high, 
corresponding in appearance with the "long-and- 
short work" of Saxon masonry in England. 

Ingoing: reveal 



Napery-press: a linen-closet, or linen-preea 
PlEND: portion of roof between or contiguous to 
hips,— the hip-rafters being termed piend-rafters. 
Platt; platform or landing. 

Polished, as applied to freestone: rubbed till all 

marks of the tool are obliterated. 
Press: a closet, frequently formed in the thickness 

of a wall. 

Raggle: a rectangular groove cut in stone or brick- 
work. 

Safe-lintel or Safety-lintel : the wooden lintel 
which is placed behind a stone lintel or an arch 
of a door or window. 

Sole: cilL 

Sole-plate, of iron beam: bottom flange. 

Snecked rubble: uncoursed rubble, in which the 
stones are used as they occur, the interstices 
between the larger stones being filled with 
smaller pieces. When this is done with great 
nicety, and so as to preserve perfectly the hori- 
zontal and vertical bond by the complete inter- 
lacing of the amorphous stones, the operation 
is termed snecking, and the work is palled snecked 
rubble. 

Standards, of timber-framed partitions: quarters. 
Strap, as applied to interior of walls, for receiving 

lath and plaster: batten. 
Upstart, in masonry: a stone set on end. 



FEEN CLIFF VILLA, 



WEMYSS BAY, FIRTH OF CLYDE. 

J. T. ROOHEAD, ARCHITECT, GLASGOW. 

PLATES I— V. 



■jm i ii i yj J >11S handsome ornamental Villa, erected in the year 1851, is pictur- 
'Ml |0, esquely situated not far from the pier at Wemyss Bay. Its site 
PP Jiff is a slightly elevated and level strip of land between the public 
MMMHRft roa( j a j on g s hore an( j a high range of red sandstone cliffs. 
These cliffs are clothed with ivy, ferns, and other wild plants, and the grounds 
both above and below them are richly adorned with natural wood, the whole 
forming a fine back-ground to the house. 

The general outline and arrangement of the ground-plan is disposed so as 
to suit the irregular shape of the ground, which follows the indentations of the 
cliff, and so that the windows of the sitting-rooms should command the finest 
views. The large window of the dining-room looks north, and the view from 
it embraces a long stretch of the Firth of Clyde, Loch Long, the entrances to 
the Holy Loch and Loch Goil, with their bold mountain ranges, and the various 
summer resorts upon their shores. The drawing-room faces the west, and from 
its bay-window commands an extensive prospect of rich and varied scenery, 
including the shores of Cowal and the island of Bute, over and beyond which 
rise the lofty picturesque peaks of the island of Arran. 

The entrance is placed in the south front (Plate III.), and the approach 
kept well away from the windows of the principal rooms; the lawn in front 
of them, being thus preserved intact. 

Principal Floor (Plate II.) — On entering the porch a glass door on the 
left opens upon the vestibule and corridor, which are well lighted down their 



2 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE, 



whole length by the large window at the end of the vestibule. On the left of the 
corridor is the door to the drawing-room and entrance to the staircase ; at its 
further end is the door to the dining-room ; and on the right is a door to a bed- 
room, and another to a passage communicating with the kitchen department, 
which contains, besides the kitchen, a servants' hall, butler's pantry and sleeping- 
room, scullery, laundry, milk-room, and larder, with stair to a servant's bedroom 
placed in an attic floor over the laundry. 

The Upper Floor (Plate III.) contains four good bedrooms, a dressing-room, 
and a bath-room with water-closet, all very compactly arranged with great 
economy in the lobby space. 

Among the various features to be commended in the arrangements of this 
house, are the turn at right angles in the entrance from the porch to the vesti- 
bule, designed to secure the interior against draughts — that frequent source of 
annoyance and ill-health ; the position of the conservatory, and the ready access 
to it from the drawing-room ; the form and recessed situation of the staircase 
leading to the bedroom floor, and the important external feature which is made 
of it ; the convenient position of the kitchen, well removed from the corridor, 
but near to the dining-room, with which it communicates by a service door; and 
the retired situation of the back entrance door. 

In the exterior elevations will be found many striking features gracefully 
carried out. Of these we would instance the manner in which the richly 
mullioned bay-window of the drawing-room is carried up, giving an oriel and 
balcony to the principal bedroom, with the piquant corbelling and treatment 
of the gable over it ; the change of plan made on the upper part of the staircase 
tower, with its many-gabled and high pointed octagonal roof, terminating with 
finial and vane; and the two overhanging corbelled windows in other bedrooms; 
all of which, whilst they give convenience and impart elegance to the interior 
arrangements, are made at the same time to add greatly to the variety and 
picturesque effect of the exterior. 

The external walls, which are two feet thick, are all built of an easily 
wrought sandstone of a red colour, obtained from a quarry in the immediate 
vicinity. The base course, corners, stairs and steps, chimney-stalks, and all 
dressings of doors and windows, are of hewn stone, the moulded portions being- 
polished, and the walls between built of coursers about five inches high, left 
rough on the face, and pointed with hydraulic lime. The internal walls that 



Plate III 




■ 



3. C xm to., ingr aver 



FERN CLIFF VILLA. 



contain fire-places are also of stone, the partitions of ground-floor are of hard- 
burned brick, and those in the bedroom floor of wood standards, lathed and 
plastered. The inner side of all external walls, and both sides of stone walls 
that are within, are lined with lath on straps before plastering. 

The carpenter work is executed in best Quebec yellow pine, the finials or 
terminals of gables and gablets in pitch pine; and all the internal wood 
finishings in best St. John's yellow pine. All the windows except those of the 
kitchen portion are glazed with plate-glass, the others with crown-glass. 

The roof of the tower over the staircase is covered with lead, and its con- 
struction is shown by the section on Plate IV. In the engravings this roof is 
represented as covered with slate, a material that would tend to increase its 
picturesque character, but more suitable for a situation less exposed to storms 
than that in which the house is built. The terminal and vane of this tower are 
shown enlarged on Plate II. 

The other roofs and gablets are steeply pitched and boldly projected, the 
eaves and gables being enriched with moulded cantilevers and pinnacles; they 
are all covered with Easdale or West Highland slate, with lead on ridges and 
flanks, gutters, &c. The construction of the roofs will be readily understood 
from the general section, and their arrangement from the elevations and per- 
spective view. Though much broken up with smaller roofs running into the 
larger, it presents no difficulties requiring explanation. The section is taken on 
the dotted line marked A B on the ground-plans. 

The height of the ceilings in the principal rooms is 12 feet, and that of the 
bedrooms over them is 11 feet, part of which height is gained out of the roof by 
keeping the ceiling joists several feet higher than the wall-heads, as shown on 
the section. 

The style adopted is what may be termed mixed Tudor and Elizabethan, 
freely modified and blended together. All the internal finishings are carried out 
in the same style as the external, and with equal richness of detail; the corridor 
being laid with encaustic tiles. 

Besides three plates containing the plans of ground and bedroom floors, one 
section and elevations of three sides of the house, we give a perspective view 
(Plate I.), in which the side not given in elevation is well shown; also a sheet of 
details (Plate V.), containing the more important and decorative features of the 



4 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



building, drawn to a larger scale, by means of which the construction, finishing, 
and ornamentation will be found fully and clearly explained. 

The cost of the house is here given from the accounts of the various trades- 
men: — 



Mason and Bricklayer work £870 10 1 

Carpenter and Joiner work, including Ironmongery and Glass, , „ 552 12 6^ 

Slater work, 73 3 

Plumber work, 154 9 4 

Plaster work, 79 4 

Marbles, Bells, and Encaustic Tiles, 53 12 



£1783 U 7 

The conservatory was erected sometime after the completion of the build- 
ing, and is not included in the statement of cost. 



OAK LEIGH VILLA, 



BLAIRMORE, LOCH LONG. 

JOHN GORDON, ARCHITECT, GLASGOW. 



PLATES VI.-VIII. 



AKLEIGH VILLA is situated on the shores of Loch Long, near its 
junction with the Firth of Clyde, and stands upon a rising 
ground about two hundred and fifty feet back from the road 
which skirts the loch, and fully forty feet above the level of 
its waters. It was erected in the year 1863. In front of the house there is 
a steep rocky bank clothed with natural wood and creeping plants, which 
forms a pleasing contrast to the smooth-kept lawn beneath it. The platform 
on which the house stands is of limited extent, and in the rear the hills rise 
to a height of some eighteen hundred feet. 

The house faces the east, an exposure not desirable, but necessitated by 
the nature of the ground, and having its drawbacks well compensated by a 
very fine view. On the left, the front windows command Loch Long to its 
junction with Lochgoil, with the rugged Arrochar hills beyond — in front are 
the shores of Cove and Kilcreggan, and the whole stretch of the Clyde from 
Greenock to Bowling — to the right the view includes Gourock, and the channel 
as far as Wemyss Bay. 

The house is in the Italian style, and in respect of internal arrangement 
and external appearance is specially adapted to the site. The leading features 
of the design are a spacious five-lighted bow-window, rising the whole height 
of the front, and lighting the dining and drawing rooms; a tower with a 
saddle-back roof and turret, terminating about fifty- three feet above the ground; 
and an open entrance porch, with semi-circular arches, springing from columns 
with carved capitals; 

B 




6 VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 

Principal Floor. — On the ground floor (Plate VII.) the front or east side 
of the building is occupied by the entrance porch, vestibule, staircase, and dining- 
room ; behind are the parlour, lower bed-room, kitchen, and butler's pantry, the 
latter occupying a central position between the dining-room and kitchen, and 
communicating with both; whilst the scullery, servants' room, laundry, coal 
depot, &c, form a wing by themselves, extending northwards from the north 
gable of the main building. There is also a wine-cellar under the dining-room, 
to which access is had by a small stair entering from the dining-room closet. 

The Upper Floor consists of the drawing-room, three bed-rooms, bath- 
room, &c. A stair opening from the lobby in the upper floor leads up to a 
comfortable smoking-room in the tower. 

The height from floor to ceiling of the principal floor is twelve feet, and 
in the upper floor the height of the drawing-room is eleven feet six inches, and 
of the bed-rooms and tower-room ten feet. 

The external walls are two feet thick, and constructed of schistose rubble, 
procured by quarrying about a hundred yards behind the house, with dressings 
of white freestone, brought by water from near Glasgow, a distance of about 
thirty miles. The freestone has the mouldings polished, and the plain surfaces 
partly droved and partly finely dabbed. The rubble of the three principal fronts 
is laid in courses, and pointed with Portland cement ; that of the rear is irregu- 
larly disposed, and rough-cast with hydraulic lime. The walls at the ground 
level, as well as the whole area inclosed within them, are covered with a layer 
of asphalte, as a protection against damp rising from the ground. The inner 
sides of all external walls are lathed before plastering. 

The front roofs are covered with Welsh slates disposed in ornamental 
bands, and the others with undersized Ballachulish slates, the whole being 
rendered storm proof by means of asphalted felt laid betwixt the slates and 
slate-boarding. The gutters, planks, piends, and ridges are covered with lead, 
the ridges being secured with galvanized malleable iron straps. The flashings 
round chimney stalks, and covering of the platform of the porch, are also of lead. 
The back of the main roof, and both sides of the wing roof, have galvanized cast- 
iron eave-runs, supported by galvanized malleable iron hooks. The ridges of 
the porch, tower, and bow-window are surmounted by an ornamental cast-iron 
cresting. 



Plate VII. 





OAKLEIGH VILLA. 



7 



The carpenter work is of best Quebec yellow pine, and the joiner work of 
best St. John's yellow pine. The windows of the three principal fronts are 
glazed with plate-glass; those in the rear and the projecting wing with crown- 
glass. All the windows of the principal floor are furnished with shutters, 
excepting the bow-window of the dining-room, which, in common with the bed- 
room windows of the upper floor, has imitation shutters only. 

Internally the finishings and decorations are in keeping with the exterior. 
The vestibule is paved with encaustic tiles, and the main lobby floor is of polished 
pitch pine, having a broad inlaid border of oak, ebony, teak and plane-tree, 
arranged in geometrical forms. The staircase is lighted by a large and finely 
painted window of a pictorial character. The stair, with exception of Arbroath 
stone treads, is constructed chiefly of polished pitch pine, and is furnished with 
a highly ornamental railing, in which fret panels enriched with carved pateras 
alternate with spiral balusters. The balusters with their capitals and bases 
are of plane-tree, the fretwork of pitch pine, 1| inch thick, with decorations of 
teak planted upon it, and the cope and string-board are of oak; the whole 
being French polished. 

The interior of the bow-window, forming the end of the drawing-room, is 
finished with detached columns, having moulded bases and foliated caps, sup- 
porting moulded arches, which are enriched with laurel bead and floral clasp. 
The jambs of this window are lined with mirrors surmounted by decorated 
panels, which inclose female heads in high relief, emblematic of spring and 
summer. A plaster coving, ornamented with trefoil, large water leaves, and 
natural grass, bounded by a top and bottom moulding, the former relieved with 
hair-bell and ivy leaf, and the latter with convolvulus enrichment, forms the 
angle of the ceiling. The dining-room has also plaster ornamentation specially 
designed for it. The principal features of these interior decorations are shown 
in detail on Plate VIII. 

All the rooms have marble chimney-pieces, those of the sitting-rooms being 
somewhat ornamental, the others plain. 

The house is fitted throughout with gas-pipes; hot and cold water are 
supplied to the bath-room, pantry, principal bed-room, and scullery; and a coil 
of hot-water pipes, connected with the boiler used for the green-house, serves 
to heat and ventilate the lobby in winter. 



8 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



The entire cost of the building was under £2000. This sum includes all the 
decorative work already described, the papering of bed-rooms, size colouring of 
public rooms, staircase, and porch, and painting of the wood-work of house 
and out-houses; the erection of a poultry-house and yard for two dozen poultry; 
and of a green-house 22 feet by 11 feet, with hot-water heating apparatus; the 
sinking and building of a large well, and the building of the front and back 
boundary walls, the one 186 feet long and feet high, the other 193 feet long 
and 10 feet high, together with the entrance gate and gate pillars. 

The building is illustrated by plans of the several floors, and elevations of 
three of its sides, also by a perspective view, in which the side not given in 
elevation is well shown. The tasteful enrichments of the drawing-room, the 
elaborate staircase railing, and portions of the porch, are shown in detail in a 
separate sheet. 



COTTAGE AT HOLLY VILLAGE, 



HIGHGATE, NEAR LONDON. 

H. A. DAEBISHIEE, ARCHITECT, LONDON. 



PLATES IX.-XI. 



HIS is one of a group of eight detached cottages that have been 
built at Highgate, near London, for Miss Burdett Coutts. It was 
erected in the year 1865, and is situated on the east side of Swain's 
Lane, which forms the boundary of the grounds of Holly Lodge, 
Miss Coutts' residence, from various points in which, these cottages are designed 
to form picturesque and ornamental features. 

The ground upon which it is built is of a triangular form, and slopes irregu- 
larly towards the west and north- west; and the arrangements of the cottage 
have been disposed with special reference to its site, which is rendered still 
more irregular by the positions of some large trees. 

This house is designed to be occupied by a family, and by a lodger who 
requires good, and at the same time retired, apartments, and whose wants can 
be attended to by the family who let the rooms, without interfering with the 
privacy of either. 

Principal Floor. — The entrance is through an open porch in the east front, 
a door opposite opens on the lobby of the house proper, and another at the right 
hand on the lobby of the lodger's apartments. These rooms are entered from 
their own lobby, and consist of a parlour and bed-room, to which are attached 
a water-closet, a pantry, and a place for coals under the stair. The arrangement 
of these rooms has been so contrived as to secure for their occupant all the 

privacy, quiet, and comfort of a separate dwelling, without the responsibilities 

c 




10 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



of a household. The family house contains on the ground floor a parlour, kitchen, 
wash-house or scullery, and a pantry, besides a boiler in the scullery, and a 
water-closet, entered from the lobby, all very conveniently placed. The lobby 
is 7 feet wide, and contains the staircase to the chamber floor ; the stair, being- 
made to begin opposite the parlour door, ascends over the entrance door, and 
gives a wide and airy upper landing. 

The Upper Flook contains three good bed-rooms, the doors to which are all 
well contrived to prevent draughts, and screen the positions of the beds. 

The style adopted is Domestic English Gothic, carried out with much 
fulness of detail and ornamentation. The internal finishings are executed in the 
same taste as those of the exterior. 

The walls are constructed of good stock bricks, the external facework being 
executed with a superior kind of stock bricks called paviors, which are harder and 
have a richer and more uniform colour than the common stocks ; the plinths, 
string-courses, door and window jambs, and the ornamental facework, such as 
lozenges, diamonds, &c, are executed with white Huntingdon bricks, which are 
whiter than paviors, and more durable than the Suffolk bricks generally 
employed for this purpose. All the corners of the walls and of door and window 
jambs are splayed or enriched with a quirked bead, which softens and gives a 
general richness and refinement to the outlines at a trifling expense. Portland 
stone is employed for the window cills, detached shafts, moulded parts of 
chimney-heads, and in other situations where brick is not desirable. 

To prevent damp rising in the walls the following mixture was laid on them 
at the level of six inches above the ground-line, viz. 5 pails dry washed sand, 
pails lime, 4i pails gas tar, 4fis of pitch, and li fts tallow, boiled together for 
four hours and laid on hot. 

The whole external woodwork is constructed of Moulmein teak, well 
varnished ; all the internal woodwork of best Baltic timber. This beautiful and 
expensive teak was adopted for the external work in preference to oak (than 
which it is more expensive and more difficult to work), on account of its fine 
colour, its durability, and non-liability to warp and split though long exposed to 
the influences of the weather. 

The roofs are first covered with Croggan's patent asphalted felt laid upon 
rough boarding, and then slated with Cumberland slates of a delicate green colour, 



Plate X 




COTTAGE AT HOLLY VILLAGE. 



having ornamental bands and figures executed in darker shades of slate. The 
ornamental ridges are of Staffordshire blue tile. All hips and valleys are 
covered with 6 lbs. lead. The eave-gutters and rain-water pipes are of cast- 
iron. 

All the windows are casements, glazed with heavy crown-glass, and made to 
open outwards, checked to prevent the ingress of the weather, and secured by a 
purposely designed fastener, which serves as a stay bar when the windows are 
open, and secures them effectually when they are shut. 

The whole of the work is executed with an amount of care and finish such 
as is seldom bestowed on buildings of a much more pretentious description. 

The group of buildings, of which the one under review forms but a small part, 
having been erected with a view to the decoration of the margin of Miss Coutts' 
pleasure-grounds, and at same time of providing cottage accommodation of a 
superior description, and as the materials and workmanship are of the very best 
description, the cost has been considerable. It therefore offers no criterion for 
the cost at which a cottage of the same design and dimensions could be erected 
in a substantial but more ordinary manner. 

We illustrate this example by plans of the ground and chamber floors, 
elevations of each front, a general section, taken on the dotted line marked ab 
on plans, and a perspective view of the exterior from the north-east. Also a 
sheet of details, by which the construction of the many ornamental features, 
such as the porch, gablets, barge-boardings, chimney-stalks, and casements, may 
be clearly and distinctly understood. 



SEYMOUR LODGE, 



COVE, LOCH LONG. 

A. & G. THOMSON, ARCHITECTS, GLASGOW. 



PLATES XII.-XV. 



|HIS house is situated at Cove, a pleasant sea-side resort on the 
I east shore of Loch Long, near its junction with the Firth of 
I Clyde. It was erected in the year 1850. The site of the 
building is a portion of the narrow belt of level ground between 
the road along the beach and the high rocky bank which forms the ancient 
coast line. This bank is adorned with natural wood, and completely shelters 
and shuts in the lower level from the east, whilst a beautiful and extensive 
view of the Loch and the Firth presents itself to the west, north-west, and 
south-west. The prospect to the north and south is partially confined by the 
adjoining villas and the planting connected with them. 

The plans and general design are arranged to suit the limited nature of 
the site. The block plan is nearly a true square, with a wing containing 
the kitchen accessories attached to the one end, and a projecting porch to 
the other. The extent of frontage is thereby increased, and provision made 
for placing the house nearer to the bank than it could have been had the 
kitchen accessories been projected behind. By this arrangement the limited 
breadth in front available for pleasure-ground is economized, and its propor- 
tions considerably improved. The entrance is placed at one end so as to keep 
the approach away from the windows of the sitting-rooms, and these rooms are 
provided with large windows which fully command the view seawards. 

Ground Floor. — The projected porch is provided with double doors. The 
lobby is 5 feet 3 inches wide, and is lighted at the end by a large mullioned 
window filled with stained glass. This floor contains a parlour and dining- 




SEYMOUR LODGE 



13 



room to the front, with the staircase to the upper floor, having a pantry 
underneath it, and to the rear two good bed-rooms and kitchen. In the 
wing, which is entered through the kitchen, there is a servants' bed-room, 
wash-house, larder, coal-cellar, ashpit, and servants' closet. 

The Upper Floor contains a drawing-room placed over the dining-room, 
three good bed-rooms, one small room, and two commodious closets. 

The style of the design is an adaptation of the later Gothic, and of a 
somewhat more ornamental character than usual in houses of this size. The 
interior finishings are substantial and handsome, and carried out in the same 
taste as the exterior. 

The external walls are built of rubble; the corners, upper course of base, 
jambs, soles and lintels of openings, and all moulded and splayed parts, are 
of dressed freestone. The outside steps and chimney-shafts are also wrought in 
dressed freestone. The rubble is of gray schistose rock found in the immediate 
neighbourhood. The freestone employed is from Inverkip, on the Firth of 
Clyde, distant by water about seven miles. The partition walls of the principal 
floor are of brick; and those of the upper floor of standards and lath. All 
external walls are lathed on the inside. 

The height of ceilings of the principal floor is 11 feet 6 inches. The ceilings 
of the upper floor are partially campceiled, and have a height of 11 feet in 
the drawing-room and 9 feet in the bed-rooms. 

The sleeper joists of ground floor, safe lintels, wall plates, dooks and all 
external wood work, are of American red pine; the flooring of dram battens. 
All the other wood work is of American yellow pine — that for the internal 
finishings being carefully selected. 

The roofs are covered with under-sized West Highland slates, having bands 
of slates, arranged diagonally, or in diamond form, to give variety and lightness 
of appearance. The eave gutters and roof valleys are lined with lead, and the 
chimney-stacks have lead flashings raggled into the stone-work, and pointed 
with cement. The flashings at kitchen wing and porch are of zinc. The ridge 
cresting and ridge tiles, as well as the balcony railings, are of cast-iron, made 
to designs by the architects. 

The windows of the front are formed in casements, and glazed with plate- 
glass. Since that material has been so reduced in price as to permit of its 

D 



14 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



being freely used, shutters, as a means of security, have been considered less 
necessary than formerly. On the front windows of this house they are 
therefore dispensed with, and taking advantage of this circumstance, mirrors 
are inserted a,t each side of the dining-room window in the spaces usually 
occupied by shutters. This contrivance gives an agreeable effect of lightness, 
and reproduces the pleasing external view inside the room. 

The front of the parlour is one continuous window. While the cooling 
properties of such an amount of glass might be objectionable in a house to 
be occupied in winter, in this house, which is only occupied during the summer 
months, it is found advantageous, and- the parlour, from its cheerfulness, is 
quite a favourite room. 

The staircase landing on the upper floor has a flat ceiling formed into 
panels by wood work and filled with coloured glass, through which the light 
is transmitted from the large sloping window shown in the rear of roof. 

The cost of the building was as follows: — 



Mason Work, Bricklayer Work, and Digger Work (estimated), . . . £+50 

Carpenter, Joiner, and Ironmongery Work, including Glass and Glazing, . . 333 6 4J 

Slater Work, 35 10 

Plaster Work 45 5 10 

Plumber Work, 45 8 6 

Iron ridge and ornamental balconies (estimated) 21 9 

Marble Chimney-pieces for three Rooms, 2100 

Bells and Bellhanging, . 1450 



£906 i 8j 

The exact cost of the first item stated above has not been preserved, but 
its place is supplied by an estimate derived from prices that prevailed in the 
locality at the date of building. The balcony railings shown on the Plates 
are on a more recently constructed villa in the same locality, those on this 
house being of a much plainer pattern. The price given is for the more 
ornamental design. 

The statement of cost does not take cognizance of additions made to the 
house at a later date, and which are not shown on the Plates. 

This building is illustrated by plans of the ground and upper floor, and 
elevations of the four sides; also by two sheets giving full details of the 
masonry and of the external ornamental wood work. 



VILLA AT TRINITY, 



NEAR EDINBURGH. 

JAMES O. WALKER, ARCHITECT, EDINBURGH. 

PLATES XVI. XVII. 



N the year 1863 this house was erected at Trinity, a pleasant suburb of 
Edinburgh overlooking the Firth of Forth. It occupies a corner plot 
! of ground at the junction of two roads, the land on either side of which 
is laid off in villa lots. The view right in front being thus somewhat 
confined, the architect has adopted an effective expedient for increasing the 
extent and cheerfulness of the prospect from the principal rooms by placing oriel 
windows on the external angles of the front. These are carried up through the 
chamber floor and roof, affording increased space in each of the bedrooms above, 
and terminate outside in small enriched gables, necessitating the hipping of the 
roof, which is managed with dexterity and neatness. 

The entrance porch in the centre of north front is carried up through both 
stories, and treated in a manner very similar to the bay-windows, the central 
opening forming the door, and the side windows serving to light the hall and 
corridor. A glass door and screen is placed between the hall and corridor to 
prevent draughts. 

The Ground Floor contains a dining-room and drawing-room, each 18 
feet 6 inches by 16 feet 3 inches, and each having a window in the west front, 
besides the oriels in the north-west and south-west angles of the rooms. The 
staircase, the steps of which are stone, is in the middle of the house, and is 
lighted from the roof by means of double lights, the interior one being on a 
level with the ceiling of upper floor. The ground floor also contains a parlour, 
kitchen, scullery, servants' bedroom, larder, coal-cellar, and closets, all of good 
size and conveniently placed. 



16 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



The Chamber Floor contains four large-sized bedrooms, two smaller 
bedrooms, one dressing-room, a bath-room, and several large closets and presses, 
all compact and convenient in arrangement without loss of space or sacrifice of 
comfort. Several of the bedrooms are entered from sub-lobbies, thus affording 
additional privacy; and all the doors are so arranged that in opening they 
cover the positions of the beds. 

The fireplaces in principal rooms are on the same side as the entrance 
doors, and nearly all the others are placed in the internal walls, an arrangement 
very conducive to comfort and economy of fuel. 

The two principal rooms have a clear height of 11 feet 9 inches, the 
parlour, bedroom above it, corridor, and kitchen 10 feet 9 inches, and the other 
bedrooms, except the one over scullery, 10 feet. Part of this height in upper 
floor is gained by raising the balks or ceiling joists three feet higher than 
the wall-heads, as shown in the section, Plate XVII. 

The whole external walls are built of the best freestone rubble 2 feet 
thick, all partition-walls on ground floor, and those immediately over them in 
upper floor, are built with well-burned bricks, the remaining partitions being 
composed of wood standards lathed on both sides. 

The north, west, and south walls are faced with well-squared hammer-dressed 
snecked rubble, the joints pointed and drawn with a key. The corners, jambs 
of windows, and of doors, are executed inband and upstart, the former being 
16 inches square on bed and 8 inches thick, the latter 8 inches square on bed and 
18 inches high. The ingoing faces at openings, the soffit of lintels, and top of 
sills are polished, whilst the external faces of all stone dressings on corners and 
round windows and doors are left rough, projecting an inch, having a tooled 
margin wrought all round, the face of margin being projected J inch beyond face 
of wall. The manner in which these stones are wrought and built, with the 
corbelling out of upper part of oriels, and the framing of projecting roof and 
gables above, is clearly shown in Plate XVII. 

The stone employed for the body of the walls is from Craigleith Quarry, 
and all the stones for dressings of doors, windows, corners, and base course are 
from Hailes Quarry, both of which are in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. All 
external walls are strapped and lathed on the inside for plaster. 

The timber used for all safe-lintels over openings, and for sleepers, joists, 



VILLA AT TRINITY. 



17 



roofing, and other carpenter work, is of the best Swedish red pine ; the flooring, 
slate boarding, and linings are of Swedish white-wood ; and all internal finish- 
ings of doors, windows, &c, are of American yellow pine. 

The windows of the sitting-rooms are glazed with plate glass, those of the 
bedrooms with 21 oz. sheet glass. 

The roof is covered with best Welsh (Port Dinorwick, 14 inches by 8 inches) 
slates, having every third course, and all the slates on gables, double-nailed. The 
gutters, eave-runs, conductors, ridges, &c, are all of zinc, weighing 20 oz. per 
square foot ; the ornamental ridge cresting is of iron, and the chimney-cans are 
of fire-clay. 

The floor of entrance hall is laid with encaustic tiles, and the three sitting- 
rooms and four of the bedrooms have chimney-pieces of enamelled slate. 

The accounts of the various tradesmen show the cost of this house to be as 
follows : — 



Digging, Mason, and Brick work, 
Carpenter and Joiner works, including Ir 
Slater work, . 
Plumber work, 
Plaster work, 
Bellhanging work, . 
Gasfitting work, 
Encaustic Tiles, 

Enamelled Slate CInniney-pieces, 



onmongery and Glazier work, 



£555 6 6 

452 8 

51 10 

56 10 

C9 11 5 

11 12 

12 
5 8 

20 5 

£1236 H 5 



The cost of the ornamental ridge cresting is not included in the above. 

This house is illustrated by plans of the ground and bedroom floors, plan of 
roof, and elevations of three of its sides; also by a general section, a large scale- 
plan and elevation of the oriels, with enlarged drawings of the corbelling above 
entrance-door, and of the cantalivers and ornamental framing at gables. The 
south front, which is not shown, may readily be made out from the other 
drawings. It presents a gable in centre portion over projection at kitchen, 
having one window on each floor under centre of gable, the left-hand corner of 
this front being terminated by the angle oriel of dining-room, and the right-hand 
corner by the lower roof over scullery, the side of that roof being seen in this 
elevation. 



E 



CBAIG AILEY VILLA, 



NEAR KILCREGGAN, FIRTH OF CLYDE. 

A. & G. THOMSON, ARCHITECTS, GLASGOW. 



PLATES XVIII-XXI. 



RAIG AILEY VILLA is situated on the extremity of the point 
formed by the junction of Loch Long with the Firth of Clyde, at 
a height of about eighty feet above the sea, and two hundred yards 
distant from the beach. It was erected in the year 1850, and 
though but a small building, from the prominence of its position it forms a 
striking object when viewed from passing steamboats, from which its varied 
outline and picturesque masses, seen against the sky, tell to much advantage. 
The house faces the south, and commands an extensive and lively prospect, 
embracing the whole range of the Firth of Clyde, with its busy traffic, from 
Gourock on the one hand, and the opening of Loch Long on the other, to where 
it is closed in by the distant islands of Bute, Cumbrae, and Arran. 

This house being only a summer residence, space has been economized as 
far as possible in its internal arrangements, but without curtailment of the 
accommodation requisite for a family of moderate means. 

The building is elevated on a base of rustic work, and the entrance porch 
is reached by a broad flight of ten steps, which are flanked by piers and 
parapets. The main door is made to fold back against the side walls in two 
halves of two leaves each, and is kept back during the day, so that the glass door 
immediately behind it is the entrance door in constant use. The vestibule is 
abundantly lighted by a group of five round arched windows in the south wall, 
and opens directly upon the hall and staircase, which are well lighted from the 
vestibule, and by a staircase window. The porch and vestibule combine effec- 
tually to protect the hall from draughts. 




CRAIG AILEY VILLA. 



1!) 



From the hall, a door in front opens to the dining-room, which is lighted by 
a large triplet window in the east wall, and a door on the left opens to the 
drawing-room, which is lighted by a large semicircular oriel in the south wall ; 
another door on the left side of hall opens on the passage to kitchen, which 
leads also to the offices and kitchen court. These offices consist of a wash- 
house, servants' bedroom, larder, coal-cellar, root-house and ashpit, and form a 
wing attached to the west side of the house, giving increased length of front, 
with more importance and variety to the exterior. 

The upper floor contains three large bedrooms, one smaller bedroom, one 
dressing-room, a bath-room, and several closets and presses. From the stair 
landing a trap-stair conducts to a belvidere or smoking-room in the upper floor 
of tower. 

The base is built of large rough stones set on end, producing a character 
of work suggestive of a repetition of the stratified cliff, near the brink of which 
the house is placed. The external walls are of rubble, built in irregular courses, 
and carefully pointed with a mixture of lime, smithy ashes, and oil, the joints 
being drawn in with a key, and afterwards painted with white lead. The 
surfaces of the rubble work are those formed by the natural cross cleavage of the 
rock without further manipulation. The dressings of windows and outside doors, 
external corners of walls, string and corbel courses, dado parts of chimney-stacks, 
and the shafts, arches, and frieze courses of oriel, dining-room, and vestibule 
windows, and steps, platt, and die-wall at entrance-door, are of freestone. The 
dressings round external openings, and on corners, are wrought with tooled 
margins, the face of the stone being hammer-dressed; all other dressings are 
tooled. The rubble is of schistose rock, found in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the site ; the freestone is from Gourock, on the opposite shore of the Firth. 

The masonry of base is 2 feet thick, increasing in thickness downwards. 
From the top of base to the line of upper floor the external walls are 1 foot 
9 inches thick; above that line they are 2 feet thick, being projected 3 inches on 
a corbel moulding. This projection of the upper portion of the wall gives the 
effect of a string course by very simple means, and without presenting any 
surface on which water can lodge. The wall over oriel window is carried on 
two cast-iron beams of I section, placed side by side, each beam 10 inches 
broad by 7 inches high, the sole-plate being If, and the other parts of 1^ inch 
metal; the triplet- window of dining-room has also an inside cast-iron beam. 



20 



VILLA. AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



14 inches broad by 7 inches high, of JX section, the metal being of same 
thickness as the other iron beams. The internal thick walls are of rubble; the 
partitions on ground floor, with those in upper floor immediately over them, are 
of brick, the remainder being composed of wood standards lathed on both sides. 

The safe-lintels, wall-plates, dooks, window-grounds, joisting of principal 
floor, outside doors with their frames, window-cases and sashes, and the wood- 
work of projecting eaves, are of Quebec red pine. Joisting of upper floor, ceiling- 
joists, roofing, and all other carpenter work, are of Quebec yellow pine. The 
inside doors, with all internal wood finishings, are of selected American yellow 
pine. The flooring is of Dram battens. 

The roofs overhang the walls 2 feet 4 inches, and are covered with large- 
sized Westmoreland slates, double-nailed; all the ridges and hips are covered 
with, and flashings round chimneys formed of, 6 lbs. lead, the latter being let 
into raggles cut in the stone work, batted with lead, and afterwards pointed with 
cement; the roof over oriel and the balcony are also covered with 6 lbs. lead. 
The ornamental parapet of balcony and finial of tower are of cast-iron, and the 
chimney-shafts of terra cotta. The antefixse on oriel window, and acroteria on 
points of gables, are of red pine. 

All the windows are glazed with sheet-glass in large panes, the sashes being 
hung in the usual way, with exception of that of stair-case, which is fixed, and 
those of tower and cellars, which are hinged. 

The height of ceilings on the principal floor is 11 feet, and that of the bed- 
room floor 9 feet 6 inches. All the bedrooms on upper floor are partially 
campceiled. Ventilation is provided for the space below the entrance floor by 
means of openings in the base, which have cast-iron gratings; and for the prin- 
cipal rooms by openings in ornamental composition placed over the doors. 

This villa, on whichever side it is viewed, presents a finished exterior, each 
side varied in its outlines, and well balanced in its masses. It affords a good 
example of the capabilities of the Italian style, and how that style may be made 
to combine modern requirements, such as large and numerous windows, oriels, 
balconies, &c, with graceful forms and picturesque grouping. There are features 
also in this building which at the time of its erection were considered novel, 
such as projecting the oriel to an extent greater than a semicircle, so as to em- 
brace a more extended view than the ordinary semi-circular or semi-octagonal 



CRAIG AILEY VILLA.. ^ 

forms of window; the great projection of the roofs, the character given to the. 
eaves and gables, and the recessed arcaded grouping of the other windows. 

Objections are often urged against roofs of so low a pitch as those of this 
villa, but the experience gained by this house, standing as it does in a very 
exposed position, goes far to prove that such roofs really require less repair than . 
those of a steep Gothic pitch. Whilst roofs of the latter form on houses similarly 
situated in the immediate vicinity of the one under consideration have been 
often damaged by the severe gales to which this coast is exposed, those of this 
villa have now stood for a number of years without requiring any considerable 
repair. The great projection of the roof is found of material advantage in pro- 
tecting the walls and preserving them water-tight. 

Appended is an abstract of the cost of this villa, made up for the most part 
from the accounts of the tradesmen ; the particulars, however, to which the word 
say is prefixed have not been preserved with exactness, but it is believed that 
the sums set down for them approximate very nearly to the truth. 

COST OF BUILDING. 



Mason and Brick work, including Iron Beams, . . say, £500 

Carpenter and Joiner work, including Glass and Glazing, . . . 363 4 0i 

Slater work say, 55 

Plumber work 86 18 8 

Plaster work, 49 4 5 

Painting and Paperhanging, . - ■ ■ • ■ 51 19 4$ 

Marble Cbimney-pieees, . . . • . ■ say, 20 

Bells and Bellbanging • ... say, 8 10 

Stair-railing and other Ornamental Iron work, . . . say, 20 



£1154 16 6 



This house is illustrated by plans of both floors and elevations of three of 
its sides, and by a perspective view, in which the side not given in elevation is 
well shown ; also by two sheets of details, by means of which the ornamental 
portions and peculiarities of construction may be fully understood. 



F 



DOUBLE YILLA, 



AT DERBY. 

HINE AND EVANS, ARCHITECTS, NOTTINGHAM. 



PLATES XXII. XXIII. 



NLY one of this pair of houses has been as yet erected, namely the 
one shown in Plate XXIII. The two plates, together, sufficiently 
serve to illustrate either villa, as well as the complete design. 

The site for this double villa is at the outskirts of Derby, and on the 
Osmaston Road. The house erected was built in 1864. The front that is 
called south has a south-west aspect; and it looks to the handsome church 
recently built by the General Baptists; from which it is divided by a road leading 
to the minister's residence. The aspect, being that of driving rains, would not 
be selected in a case untrammelled by particular conditions, such as the tempt- 
ing opportunity of a prospect. The soil is gravelly. 

The general decorative character of the building is Gothic; though the 
outline is not dissimilar from that of the English country-house of the early part 
of the seventeenth century. In the windows, however, the area of opening is not 
reduced by mullions; and there are sliding sashes, with plate-glass. The heads 
of all the openings, excepting those of the principal windows, are semicircular 
or segmental. 

The arrangements of plan in the erected building, and in the house that is 
only designed, are identical, or are merely reversed; and the description of one 
house will suffice. The rooms are arranged in two stories, as regards the front 
portion, of the building, and in three as regards the rear; a portion of the upper 
story in the latter case being in the roof. The main entrance is in the side front. 

Ground Floor. — An entrance-hall of ample dimensions, and having a fire- 




H 
w 

Eh 
< 









.0 .n 












DOUBLE VILLA AT DERBY. 



23 



place in one angle, has the doors of the dining-room and drawing-room leading 
out of it, as well as a door to a lobby of entrance, under the stairs, to the kitchen. 
Attached to this lobby is a small pantry. A scullery is attached to the kitchen; 
and it has a fire-place, and a door into the yard. In the yard are the usual 
conveniences and a wash-house, the latter forming part of the scullery-building. 
The stairs are carried up from the entrance-hall within an arcade, as shown in 
Plate XXII. in a section taken through the entrance-hall. Another section, on 
the same plate (but reversed, so that it refers to the other house), shows the 
stairs themselves, and the provision for head-way. A china-closet is placed at 
the foot of the stairs. The height of this story is 11 feet from floor-line to 
ceiling. 

Upper Floors. — There are six bed-rooms. Four of these rooms, with a bath- 
room and a W.C., are on the one-pair floor. There is no loss of space; and the 
bulk-head in one of the bed-rooms would scarcely, if at all, interfere with its use. 
The clear internal height here is 9 feet. There are two bed-rooms in the attic: 
the height of these is 9 feet 6 inches in the centre, and 6 feet 4 inches from the 
floor to the slope of the roof. 

The general material of the walls is brick. Red brick, dressed, is used for 
the facing, excepting the strings and cornices, and the voussoirs of the arches, 
which are formed with dark blue Staffordshire bricks. The external walls, which 
are 11 inches in thickness, and the same throughout their height, are built with 
a cavity of 2 inches in the centre; whilst the two thicknesses, of 4£ inches each, 
are bonded together at every fourth course with a header, of 9 inches, which 
has a cut-brick to fill up the remainder of the 11 inches, that is to say, 2 inches 
at the face of the wall. The piers and jambs of the windows, the labels, copings, 
and finials, and some other parts, are of Derbyshire stone. The arrangement of 
the roofing is shown by a plan on Plate XXIII. The timber-framing to carry 
the common rafters consists of little more than the purlines, with binders. 
The ridges are covered with Staffordshire cresting-tiles, laid with cement. The 
water from the central gutter is led away by a trough-gutter, which is shown 
by dotted lines. The spaces between the joists of floors, to prevent transmission 
of sound, are filled with concrete, laid on reeds. Memel timber was used 
throughout the floors, roofs, and partitions. The land-carriage of the materials 
amounted to from 1 to 3 miles. 

It may be mentioned that, although there are no special contrivances 



24 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



subservient to ventilation in these houses, the architects have induced the 
adoption, in houses in the same neighbourhood, of flues from the gas-lights, for 
the escape of the noxious products of combustion; together with flues for 
admission of fresh air, which is warmed in winter, in a chamber behind the 
fire-place, before entering the room — the combined arrangement being indeed 
perfectly well understood, albeit it is adopted only exceptionally, instead of 
generally, as it ought to be. 

A fair statement of the cost of the one house, or the two houses, can scarcely 
be given. The accepted tender in 1863, for the pair of houses, (with architect's 
commission added, but excluding boundary-walls,) was £1780; but the actual cost 
of the house erected was more than the half of that sum, by reason of alterations 
from the work as designed; which were required by the owner; but which may 
not have been improvements. 



GATES AND GARDEN WALL, 

AT COVE, LOCHLONG. 

A. & Gr. THOMSON, ARCHITECTS, GLASGOW. 



PLATE XXIV. 



HE gates and wall selected for this illustration inclose the grounds of 
Ferndean Villa, at Cove, and were erected in the year 1863. The 
decorative treatment is a free rendering of the Gothic style, but is 
more rustic than the character of the villa itself. The gates are 
made of red pine timber, with ornamental studs and spikes of iron. The 
principal gate is 12 feet wide; the wicket or part used by pedestrians being 
4 feet, and consequently more light and handy than had the gate been divided 
into two equal parts. It is a common defect of gates divided in an unequal 
manner, that the weight of the larger leaf causes it to droop at its outer 
extremity. To obviate this, here, the piers have been proportioned in size to the 
weight which each has to carry. The pier to which the wider leaf of the gate 
is hung being much larger than its companion, its additional height permits 
of the back-stile being increased in length in proportion to the width of the leaf, 
and of the introduction of a diagonal stay from top of the back-stile to the 
bottom of the fore-stile. In this manner the hinges are relieved of undue 
friction, and the leaves come together with such precision that the latch 
and other fastenings are not liable to be displaced. Besides the apparent 
fitness of this plan, the line formed by the diagonal stay serves an important 
purpose in point of design, and has very much the effect of combining the gate 
and its piers into one firmly united group, thereby gaining dignity and force of 
expression. The smaller gate at the other extremity of the wall is simply the 
wicket of the larger one repeated. 

The hinge on which the upper part of the wider leaf of the principal gate 

o 




26 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



is hung passes nearly through the larger pier. A foot within the masonry it 
divides into two extended arms, having eyes formed on them at the point at 
which they diverge, and also on their extremities. An iron rod two feet long 
passes vertically through each of these eyes, and the whole is securely built into 
the pier. The other hinges are fixed in a similar manner, but as they are 
subject to less strain the vertical iron rods are dispensed with. 

The piers are built of whinstone rubble with mouldings and fmials of free- 
stone. The sweep of the wing-walls starting from the circle of the piers without 
any line of demarcation, together with the outline of the wall-coping continued 
round them, gives a pleasing effect of breadth and solidity. The wall is built in 
a clean and careful manner, the material being selected rubble of schistose rock 
found in the immediate neighbourhood, with coping of whinstone and arrowlets 
of freestone. 

The ground falls away from the larger gate towards the smaller one to a 
greater extent than is shown in the drawings, and the wall is so treated as to 
present the appearance of a level line, while in reality it is not so. The descent 
from the higher to the lower ground is managed by a series of long steps having 
their upper surfaces slightly inclined in the direction of the descent, and the 
coping is broken upwards at intervals with arrowlets introduced under the 
raised parts, thus repeating in minor groups the general character of the stepped 
portion along the whole wall. By these means, as well as by its moderate 
height, the wall, while gaining in picturesque character, and having its con- 
tinuity well preserved, gives an impression of greater extent and solidity than it 
would have had if its outline had been entirely plain. 

The cost did not much exceed that of an ordinary rubble-wall, the price 
being 4s. 6d. per square yard, with the addition of 6d, per lineal foot for coping, 
and 3s. 6d. for each of the arrowlets. The cost of the gates was, — 

Wood-work of both Gates, including Painting and Varnishing, £12 1G 3 

Iron-work for both Gates, including Fittings in Piers 10 12 

23 8 3 

Piers and Wing walls for both Gates, 33 1 1 8 



£56 19 11 



Plate XXV. 



Cottage at Lundin Links 
fife shire. 




FRONT ELEVATION, 





1 



J C Walker. Architect 



FLANK ELEVATION. 



Scale forElevj 



BLACK1E k SON. OLA5U0W. XDIHBUB0S LONDON. 



.. ifLC raver 



COTTAGE AT LUNDIN LINKS, 



FIFESHIRE. 

JAMES O. WALKER, ARCHITECT, EDINBURGH. 



PLATE XXV. 



|ITHIN about a quarter of a mile of the Lundin Links station. 
I on the Edinburgh and Anstruther Railway, this cottage was 
I erected in the year 1859. It faces the south, and commands an 
extensive prospect over the Eirth of Forth and the Lothians. 
Being a very small house, compactness of arrangement has been carefully 
studied, and the passages reduced to the least extent. The principal floor 
consists simply of two sitting-rooms, with a kitchen and its accessories. The 
entrance-lobby is lighted by a fan-light over the door, and the staircase is lighted 
from the roof. There is a closet under the stairs; and in the passage to the 
kitchen there is a descent of two steps, the kitchen floor being one foot lower 
than that of the principal rooms. 

The chamber-floor contains two bed-rooms, exactly over and of the same 
dimensions as the sitting-rooms, with a bed-closet between them over the 
entrance-lobby. Two smaller bed-rooms are placed over the kitchen and scul- 
lery, on a lower level than the front bed-rooms: they are entered from the 
mid-landing of the stairs through a small lobby; where also is placed a water- 
closet, lighted and ventilated through the roof. 

The height of the principal rooms is 9 feet 9 inches, and that of the bed- 
rooms 9 feet 6 inches ; but part of the height in the latter case is within the 
roof. The level of the ceiling of the rooms in the front of the house, as well as 
the levels of the floors, front and back, are shown on the end-elevation by dotted 
lines. 

The external walls are two feet thick, and built of whinstone rubble, 




28 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



obtained by breaking up the boulders strewn along the shore of the firth. The 
front-wall is faced with hammer-dressed stretchers, each 6 inches to 7 inches 
in depth, the joints of which are carefully pointed and drawn. The end- 
gables are faced with snecked rubble. The base-course, all sills and lintels, 
corners of walls, and jambs of doors and windows, with all corbel and moulded 
work at sides and over entrance-door, are of freestone from Grange Quarry at 
Burntisland, some eighteen miles distant along the coast. The corners and 
jambs are built "inband and upstart," or as "long and short work," the inband 
stones being 16 inches square by one course in height, and the others 8 inches 
square by three courses in the height ; these and all other freestone dressings 
have a one-inch tooled margin all round their exposed faces, the remainder of 
surface being left rough and projecting 1 inch. By consulting the details of 
the Villa at Trinity (Plate XVII.) by the same architect, the treatment of the 
projecting gables and of the masonry will be exactly seen. 

The timber in the carpenters' work, as joists, partitions, door-frames, roof- 
timbers, &c, and including the barge-boarding, cantilevers and dressed scantlings 
of projecting roofs and gables, as well as outside doors and windows, is of the 
best Memel red pine. The whole internal wood finishings are of the best 
American yellow pine. All the exposed timbers of projecting roofs are painted 
and varnished. 

The roofs are covered with the best Westmoreland slates, each course 
having 2^ inches of lap. The ridge-covering and eaves-gutters are of zinc, the 
cresting being of cast-iron; of which latter material are the rain-water down- 
pipes. The chimney-shafts are of terra cotta. 



The cost of this cottage was as follows : — 



Mason's and Bricklayer's work, ....... 


£lSi 





8 


Carpenter's and Joiner's work, including Ironmongery; also Glazier's work, 


226 


12 


84 


Slater's work, ........... 


2S 


10 





Plumber's work, . . . . . . . • . 


29 


6 


4 


Plasterer's work, ........... 


23 


3 


74 


Painter's work, ........... 


6 


1 





Bellbanger's work, , 


7 


5 





Enamelled Slate Chimney-pieces for two Rooms, ..... 


G 


4 





Total Cost, 


£511 


3 


4 



COTTAGES AT THIRSK. PLATE XXVI. 

YORKSHIRE, 
E.B. LAMB, ARCHITECT, LONDON. 




FRONT ELEVATION 




BLACKIE ft SOU. GLASGOW, EDINBURGH A LOUDON 



COTTAGES AT THIESK, 



YORKSHIRE. 

E. B. LAMB, ARCHITECT, LONDON. 

PLATE XXVI. 




iHREE Cottages are represented in this Plate. They were designed 
to form one group in general effect, and were erected in 1857, 
the site being in a wide street near the outside of the town of 
Thirsk. The end-cottages are precisely similar to one another in 
the internal arrangements and decorative features — the plans merely being- 
reversed; whilst as regards the centre-cottage, there is somewhat more accommo- 
dation, with a different disposition of the rooms, and extra-height. The decora- 
tive character resembles that of the late Tudor style; but the effect is produced 
as much by the recesses and projections, on the ground, in the principal front, 
and by the gables, as by the mullions, chamfered jambs and window-heads, and 
other features of detail that may be more especially Tudor-Gothic. The main 
difference between one of the end-cottages and the cottage of the centre, arises 
from the latter having four bed-rooms, instead of three as in the other case, and 
having the ceilings of those rooms horizontal throughout, — thus there is the 
vacuity in the roof, rendering the bed-rooms more healthful and comfortable, and 
which is capable of being utilized for storage; whilst the end-cottages have a 
considerable portion of the height of their bed-rooms within the roof, so that the 
slope cuts off a portion of the space. The principal front of the centre-cottage is 
recessed, so as to allow of a flagged space between the wings formed by the ends 
of the other cottages. This arrangement is greatly conducive to effect, and is 
somewhat favourable to privacy; but it diminishes outlook : thus it might inter- 
fere with the value of a house for letting, as in sea-side watering-places, or 
wherever a wide range of prospect might be an important consideration. 



H 



30 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



Ground Floor. — Each house has a sitting-room, a kitchen, a scullery with 
back-door leading out of it, and a pantry. The principal entrance to each of the 
end-cottages is at the side or end of the block of building. The stairs are in 
front of the entrance, and the sitting-room and kitchen doors on opposite sides 
of the lobby. The kitchen in the centre-house is less exposed to view; and the 
sitting-room is larger : the scullery is seen; but the whole space appropriated to 
offices might be shut off, if desired, by a door. The windows of the end-cottages 
project from the face of the wall externally: this arrangement allows of the 
insertion of shutters, in their boxings, in the recess which is formed internally 
(in place of the projection into the room), and also allows of the production of 
good features of effect. In the centre-cottage the recess is deeper than in the 
other cases ; but externally the breadth corresponds with the substructure of the 
gable-wall itself. The height of the ground-floor rooms is 9 feet. 

Upper Floor. — In the end-cottages there are two bed-rooms with fire- 
places, and one room without ; and in the centre-cottage there are three rooms 
with fire-places, and one room without. The height of the rooms is 9 feet — that 
is to say, only in the highest part for the end-cottages, whilst throughout in the 
other case. 

The external walls are of brick; and the same material is used for the 
string-courses and edges of gables, where the bricks are set angle-wise, and for 
corbels to the gables and chimney-shafts, and other decorative details ; some of 
which are shown in an enlarged drawing, with one of the chimney-stacks. 
Arches are turned over all openings, entirely through the thickness of the wall ; 
and, as well as the jambs, they are chamfered, as before mentioned. The 
windows have wooden mullions and transoms ; and the glazing is in lead. The 
tops of the window-projections are covered with stone. The roof is covered with 
plain-tiles. The usual provisions to prevent rise of damp in the walls, as by 
a course of slate, were made. The building was in part constructed of old 
materials: a precise statement of the cost, useful for any future case, cannot 
therefore be here given. Perhaps, in the locality, such a building as this group 
of cottages, with new materials, might have cost, in the year 1857, some amount 
between £700 and £800. 



VILLA-CARENO, 



TUFNELL PARK, HOLLOWAY, LONDON. 



GEORGE TRUEFITT, ARCHITECT, LONDON. 



PLATES XXVII. XXVIII. 




CCORDING with what has been a common custom of name-giving 
attending that growth of the British Metropolis to which the 
speculative builder is one of the chief contributors, the designa- 
tion park is applied in many cases where present appropriation of 



the ground leaves the term justifiable chiefly from a lessor's point of view. 
Tufnell Park, where is situate the house represented in these plates, and 
which forms a small portion of Holloway, one of the northern suburbs of 
London, is still almost what it was many years ago, or what its name would 
imply: indeed the park-like character has been in great measure retained. 
But there is in fact this characteristic of the "Park" as generally it is in the 
more thickly populated suburbs of London, that most of the houses are 
detached, or semi-detached; moreover, each house or group has commonly a 
lawn or garden, with entrance-gates and carriage-drive, in front; whilst trees 
or shrubs at the sides help to complete a picture: thus, although the distance 
between the groups may allow of mere passage-way from front-garden to back- 
garden, there is an element of effect which is of importance to architecture. 

Where the houses are built for the occupation of the owners, it is becoming 
somewhat more than it was, the practice to employ an architect; so that it is 
now possible to find in the London-suburbs, many houses of tasteful character. 
Contemporaneously with the manifestation of the latter requisite of architec- 
ture, there has been a movement in style, affecting indeed a portion only of the 
number of houses, but still to be distinguished now that the features of change 
introduced have become of the nature of accomplished fact. In this movement 



32 VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 

Mr. Truefitt, the architect of the Villa-Careno, has been a not unimportant 
worker. The character of the architecture of the class referred to may be said 
to be a compromise between the previously and yet rival manners, known by 
the names of two old styles, the Tudor- Gothic and the Italian. The -high- 
pitched roof and the gable of the former are used in preference to the low- 
pitched roof and the pediment; but lead-lights in stone mullions are resigned 
in favour of plate-glass in openings of ample width for out-look, mullions being 
either dispensed with or formed of wood. More or less erroneous use of pre- 
cedent on the one hand, and more or less disadvantageous seeking for novelty 
on the other, may be observed in architecture of this class; forms that are 
uncouth, as some of those of pointed arches to doorway and window heads, 
are used because they are Gothic; but the style claims the notice that we 
give to it here, as well because the building that we illustrate will be the better 
understood, as because the reader may be interested in being reminded of the 
relation which an example has to the architecture of its day— relation that is 
not always so easily as in this case to be perceived. 

Villa-Careno was erected in the year 1865. Whatever the peculiarities of 
detail, the design has considerable effect from grouping; and to this the arrange- 
ment of the roofs contributes. The building is divided into two masses: one 
of these, the principal block, has two stories in height above ground, besides 
rooms in the roof, and has grouped with it a prospect-turret, partly of timber 
construction, over a porch which has a high pyramidal roof-capping; whilst the 
accessory block is of two stories (excepting as to the staircase, which is three),— 
a small portion of the upper story of the two in this case, also being in the roof. 
The arrangement of the roofing will be understood by a comparison of the view 
(Plate XXVII.) with the plans (Plate XXVIII.) The "Plan of Second Floor" 
necessarily shows the apex of one of the three spans of roofing cut off, where 
the top of the staircase is. The curiously shaped white spaces represent 
the valley-gutter between the roof-slopes. There is a considerable descent in 
the ground from front to back of the house; and the rearward portion of the 
house is cellared, for storage of coals, wood, beer, and wine, and for the principal 
larder. There is no external doorway, be it observed, to the basement. Per- 
sonal views of the owner who intends to be occupant of a house, as to what are 
requirements, must guide an architect in many particulars. 

Ground Floor.— The principal entrance to the house is in the main front, 



VILLA-CARENO. 



33 



within the porch, in which latter is a seat. The library and the dining-room lead 
out, on opposite sides, from the entrance-hall, which is 6 feet in width. At 
the end of the hall are, to the left, the staircase, and the passage-way to the side 
entrance— the kitchen door opening out of the passage ; whilst on the right is 
the drawing-room door. The dining-room and drawing-room have each a bow- 
window, as well as a window in the side of the house ; and the centre-light of 
the drawing-room bow is arranged in connection with steps of descent to the 
garden. (See the Elevations, Plate XXVII.) 'Grouped with the kitchen are 
a scullery —containing a copper and sink, and from which is the way down to the 
cellars,— a second larder, and a pantry. The pantry is lighted from the scullery 
through a glazed screen, the middle support to the shelving being of lattice-work. 
The kitchen-dresser is in a specially contrived recess. The W.C.s are under the 
stairs; the servants' closets being entered from outside the building, and the 
principal W.C. being lighted by a window which is over the door of the ser- 
vants' closet: so that there is ventilation, though the plan does not show it. The 
height of the two principal rooms of the ground floor is 12 feet. 

Chamber Floors.— On the first floor there are five bed-rooms, one of them 
of small size ; there is a dressing-room between and communicating with each 
of the principal bed-rooms; and there are also a bath-room, a linen-closet, a 
W.C, and a sink ; whilst in most of the bed-rooms there are cupboards. The 
ample lighting of the staircase merits notice. The height of the rooms on this 
story is 10 feet. The slight difference of level of the floors of the principal 
rooms and the others is indicated by the steps which are shown. The upper 
floor has two large attic-rooms, lighted partly by dormers, and partly by windows 
in the gables; and there is also a box-room (erroneously called bed-room on 
some copies of the engraving) lighted through a sheet of glass in the slating. 
In their highest part these attic rooms are 8 feet 6 inches in height. In the 
turret, at this level, there is a large cistern; and there are also the steps which 
lead to the lantern story. 

As regards the materials and the construction of the house, the external 
walls are built of ordinary bricks (" stocks "), with " seconds " {malms) for facings, 
the thickness being one brick and a half throughout the height of the building. 
The partitions that are not framed of timber-" quarters," or the greater number 
of those in the house, are of bricks in cement, half a brick for the thickness. 
As will be seen by the drawings, stone is very little used for decorative effect. 



34 VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECT ORE. 

The chief use, irrespective of the window-sills- which latter details we 
might have named as amongst those wherein Gothic precedent has been 
advisedly deviated from,-is for the copings to the corbie-steps, and for the 
hip-knobs of the gables. The arches to door and window heads are of red brick, 
the outer ring of "headers" (or bricks showing their ends) being in all the cases 
whole bricks. The dark-toned bands also are of red brick, contrasting with 
the buff colour of the main portions of the fronts. The roof-covering is of 
slate, with the same material for the ridges and hips. All the valleys, gutters 
and flashings are laid with 21 oz. zinc. The lantern-stage and roof-framing to 
the turret are of timber. Sliding sashes, or double-hung, with plate-glass are 
used generally for the windows; but in the principal rooms there is a peculiar 
formation of the upper part of the window for ventilation: for explanation of 
this the plates must suffice. In the drawing-room, however, there is a French 
casement, or glazed door, where required, for one opening; and the window at 
the side is similarly provided. The ornamental rain-water pipes and eaves-gutters 
are all of iron. These, with other ornamental iron-work shown in the drawings, 
were designed by the architect, as well as the marble chimney-pieces. Also 
specially designed were the details of joiner's work, as doors, architraves, and 
skirtings; in some of which good effect is produced by simple means. 

The original contract, which was in one sum, for the structure, was £1850; 
but including the bath, the painter's and ' paperhanger's work, and the bells 
(together with a stable for two horses, a chaise-house, and garden -walls— not 
shown), the total cost has been exactly £2306, lis. lid This is exclusive of 
gardener's work. 



VILLA AT GEANGE, 



EDINBURGH. 

Tt. THORNTON SHIELLS, ARCHITECT, EDINBURGH. 



soil is a rich loam, on a clay bottom, with a substratum of freestone. 

The house is designed for a moderate scale of requirements, having but two 
sitting-rooms, and five bed-rooms, but with complete provision in the offices for 
all the wants of a small unostentatious establishment. The rooms are arranged 
upon a nearly square area of ground, with a little one-story addition for a 
portion of the offices ; the upper story of the main block having a small dimen- 
sion of its height taken out of the high-pitched roof. 

The decorative character of the design is Gothic, and Continental in kind, 
— hipped ends to the main roof, and to the dormers, being preferred to gables, 
and small pillars or shafts to nmllions where the openings are divided; and 
metal-work finials and cresting being prominent. Amongst the other features 
made decorative are a porch, and the eaves-guttering. The general masonry is 
coursed rubble-work, random-dressed; whilst the quoins, window-jambs, and 
reveals, are of rubbed stone. Each angle in the principal front presents, in the 
lower story, a small engaged pillar; whilst in the upper story, the angle is cham- 
fered off. Over the first story there is a band of red-coloured stone, producing 
the effect of a string-course, and forming discharging arches over the windows. 
The porch is raised on stone plinths, each side, for the pillars, which latter are 



PLATE XXIX. 




|HIS House was erected in the year 1862. It is situated in Dick 
1 Place, a range of villas and cottages on the Grange estate, at the 
I southern outskirts of Edinburgh. The entrance -front has a 
southern aspect, and commands a view of the Braid Hills. The 



36 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



of Baltic red-deal, having moulded capitals and bases of the same material; 
the whole arrangement, with the decorative character of the roof, being well 
shown separately in a perspective view. The plate also shows some other por- 
tions of the front, enlarged. 

Ground Floor. — The front-entrance gives access to a small vestibule, 
whence an inner door leads to a lobby, 5 feet in width, on the opposite sides of 
which are the dining-room and parlour. Each of these rooms has its windows 
to the front, and has the fire-place in the end or external wall, with a shallow 
closet on one side. At the end of the lobby is the staircase; which is well lighted 
from the two-light window which is shown in the chamber-plan. Beyond the 
dining-room and parlour are the servants' bed-room and the kitchen; which 
latter are connected by a lobby under the stairs. The way into the kitchen 
from the main lobby and staircase-hall is through this lobby of service; so 
that the portion of the house containing the offices is shut off from the living- 
rooms, whilst conveniently near them. Attached to the kitchen are a scullery, 
a pantry, and a place for coals ; and under the stairs is a store-room, or place 
suitable for a cask of beer, entered from the service-lohby. The scullery con- 
tains, besides a sink, a copper, and fixed washing-tubs, with hot and cold water. 
The rooms on this floor are 12 feet in the clear height. The principal rooms 
have well-relieved, effective, cornices. The floors of the porch, vestibule, and 
principal lobby are laid with Maw's encaustic tiles, and the porch has a skirting 
of the same material. The kitchen is paved with Arbroath stone. The stairs 
are of stone, with iron balusters ornamentally treated, and hand-rail of polished 
oak. 

Chamber Floor. — Here, besides three bed-rooms, there are a bath-room, a 
" napery," or store for towelling — attached to the bath-room; a closet for clothes, 
or for stores of a different kind; and a W.C. The bath-room and closets, and the 
second bed-room, are entered through a lobby; so that this part of the house may 
be shut off from the staircase and other rooms — an arrangement that is very 
conducive to convenience. The bath-room has a fire-place, and a fixed basin- 
stand, with a supply of hot and cold water, besides the bath. The height of these 
second-story rooms is 10 feet in the clear. What is taken out of the roof 
appears as a cove to the ceiling, of about 14 inches in height. The lights of 
the staircase window — semicircular-headed — are filled with stained glass. 

The masonry of the external walls, already referred to, is constructed of a 



VILLA AT GRANGE, EDINBURGH. 



37 



close-grained stone from the Binny Quarry, about seven miles distant. It was 
thought that this stone would be more economical for use, in the case of a small 
building, than stone quarried from the site itself; although for some of the 
larger villas on the Grange estate, the latter material had been used advan- 
tageously. The general roof-covering is of slates, some of these slates being cut, 
and disposed in courses, as shown. The ornamental flashings to the dormers 
are of lead; and the eaves-guttering and brackets, and the finials and cresting 
are of iron. In the interior of the building all the wood-work is of American 
yellow-pine, stained and varnished. The work has been well executed, and 
fortunately so; for on the material and execution of joiners work that is not 
painted, everything depends. 

Though of small size, and generally square on plan, this villa is certainly 
effective; whilst, it is stated, the cost has not exceeded that of common-place 
structures in the vicinity. Exclusive of boundary-walls, and laying-out grounds, 
and of some decorative fittings of the interior, the cost was as here given:— 



Mason's work, .... 
Carpenter's, Joiner's, and Glazier's work, 
Plumber's and Gasfltter's work, 
Slater's work, . 
Plasterer's work, 
Bellhanger's work, 
Tile-Pavements, 
Chimney-pieces, 



£350 

271 8 3 

66 

39 2 5 

50 

11 

15 

24, 

£820 10 8 



K 



COTTAGE-ORNE, 



AT MILL GREEN, ESSEX; 

WITH AN ALTERNATIVE DESIGN. 

H. E. KENDALL, Jxnsr., ARCHITECT, LONDON. 



PLATES XXX. — XXXV. 



EVERAL houses of decorative "half-timbered" construction, somewhat 
similar in character to those erected from the fifteenth century to 
the commencement of the seventeenth, were built subsequently to the 
year 1845, in the suburbs or neighbourhood of London, from the 
designs of one architect, whose name appears in the heading of this page. The 
first of the buildings, at Mill Green, Essex, dating in the year mentioned, and 
designed for Mr. Charles Grant, forms the principal subject of Plates XXX.— 
XXXV. The plates also show an alternative design, fitted to the same general 
arrangement of plan, — brick and stone being substituted for timber- and plaster- 
work in the upper story; and, further, where details are represented in the 
detail-plates differently from corresponding parts in the elevations, they serve 
to indicate slight variations that were made in the houses erected. These 
houses from Mr. Kendall's designs, besides the Mill Green House, are at Childer- 
ditch, Essex; and Clapham Park; Turnham Green; and Victoria Road, Ken- 
sington, — all the three last in the London suburbs. They include a house, on 
a larger scale, on the site of Pope's Villa at Twickenham, and one at Farn- 
borough Hill, near Aldershot : the latter, however, is recent. The alternative 
design is a version of that modern character of Gothic which has been called 
eclectic. The plans are the same, excepting that the overhanging of the upper 
story at one part of the erected building, shown by the section in Plate XXXIV., 
together with the similar arrangement for the gables, is omitted, that some of 
the windows are changed in position, and that the tower does not project so far. 
The alternative design is likely to be carried into effect in Hills Road, Cambridge, 





BLAQK1B i;30N GLASGOW. FJ)IMUH(.H k LOUDON 



COTTAGE-ORNE. 



39 



on ground belonging to Gonvile and Caius College. Both designs are shown 
perspectively in Plate XXX., but from different points of view; though the 
entrance -front appears in each case. The following three plates show the 
three principal elevations of both designs, corresponding elevations being placed 
on the same plate. The terraced site, with grass-slopes and steps to the prin- 
cipal entrance, and to the window of one of the rooms which has access to the 
garden ; the breaks in the exterior on plan, the grouping of the roofs, and the 
peculiar details, produce a picturesque effect that was so much admired in the 
first house erected, as to have led to repetition, or the repetition with the 
variations. 

The house or cottage at Mill Green has a south aspect for the garden-front, 
the entrance being to the east. The soil is gravel. The rooms are arranged in 
two principal stories, a basement, and an attic in the roof. There are three 
living-rooms, a conservatory, and offices ; and there are nine bed-rooms and a 
dressing-room, besides a bath-room and a house-maid's closet, both in the upper 
part of the tower. The ground -plan and the first-floor plan are given on 
Plate XXXIII. 

Ground Story. — The principal entrance is placed within a boldly projecting 
porch ; which, as shown in the view, is reached from the landing at the top of 
one of the terrace-flights of steps', where the pathway round the building inter- 
sects. At the foot of these steps are ornamental lamps ; and in Plate XXXIV. 
similar lamps are shown in connection with another front of one of the houses. 
Immediately within the entrance-door is a space recessed from the hall, for hats, 
cloaks, and umbrellas; and attached to this is a W.C. Next to the hat-and- 
cloak space, and entered from it, is a china-store, with a borrowed light from the 
scullery. The dining-room door opens from the left-hand side of the hall, and the 
drawing-room door from the end opposite the entrance : the staircase- hall opens 
to the right, and is lighted from above ; and the library, which is at the end of 
the drawing-room, joined by folding doors, has its door in the staircase-hall. The 
dining-room has a large projecting window at the side, besides one at the end 
in the principal front of the house. Attached to the side of the drawing-room is 
a large conservatory. The kitchen and scullery are placed in a one-story addition 
(with "lean-to " roof) to the main block, broken in the centre by the tower; in 
the lower story of which last is a pantry, and the back-entrance to the house. 
The tower is connected with the staircase-hall. The kitchen and scullery are 



40 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



separate from one another, but connected by a passage; out of which there is 
a door into the house, besides the way down to the basement, and that to the 
back -entrance. The principal rooms of this story are 12 feet 6 inches in the 
clear height. 

Chamber Floors. — Including one small room in the tower, there are five 
bed-rooms in the first floor, and a dressing-room (as shown in our plate). In the 
attic-story there are four bed-rooms: two of these measure 25 feet by 11 feet each; 
one measures 20 feet by 11 feet, and one is 12 feet by 11 feet. The diminished 
breadths of these rooms in the roof, as contrasted with the rooms below, it need 
not be explained to the professional reader, result from the cutting off portions 
next the floor, by lathed -and- plastered partition-work, in order to get more 
convenient ceilings. In the alternative design the tower does not project so far 
as in the Mill Green Cottage, in the upper portion of it; so that there is one 
bed-room less. There is no W.C. up-stairs. The rooms on the first floor are 
9 feet 9 inches in height; and the attic-rooms are 8 feet 9 inches in the highest 
part. 

The Basement contains the wine- beer- and coal-cellarage, a larder, a milk- 
room, and a stoke- and furnace-room for heating the conservatory. 

The walls in the lower story of the house at Mill Green are constructed of 
brick-work, with Bath-stone heads and sills to the windows, and a moulded 
string-course, and a base-mould, also in stone. The facing is of red bricks, 
pointed with black mortar. The windows have frames with fir moulded half- 
mullions, backed by deal casing for the weights, the lights being fitted with 
ordinary sliding sashes. The principal chamber-story, as to the walling, is con- 
structed partly of brick-work and partly of the timber and plaster work before 
referred to. There is a 9-inch brick backing, and an ornamental timber framing 
in front, securely fixed to the brick-work, and its members morticed and tenoned 
together. The timbers generally are 6 inches on the face, and 2^ inches in thick- 
ness. The edges at the back are chamfered off, so as to provide "key " to hold 
the plaster, which is laid on the brick-work. The square spaces between the 
windows of the two floors, in the Mill Green House, are filled in with castings 
in Medina cement, 1 inch in thickness, and ornamented in fanciful and varied 
patterns. These spaces may be fiiled with Minton's encaustic tiles, of different 
colours. The verge-boards of the gables are of fir, 2^ inches in thickness, moulded 
and perforated, and have pendants and terminals, — the latter of wrought and 



COTTAGE-ORNE. 



41 



cast-iron, — and all the patterns differing from one another. In advance of the 
upper windows are large moulded beams and brackets; whilst the attic-joisting 
projects so as to assist in getting the overhanging. The roofs are covered with 
plain tiles, with a serrated or engrailed ridge. The chimneys are of brick. The 
capping of the tower, the covering of the ridges of the dormers, the different hips, 
and the flat over the bay-window, the linings of the gutters, and the flashings, 
are of lead, 7 lbs. to the foot superficial. The porch is constructed in fir, on a 
brick base; and has the framing of the roof exposed internally. In the covering, 
ornamental tiles are used, alternating with courses of the plain tiles. The 
arcading of the sides of the porch is filled in with ornamental iron-work (Plate 
XXXIV.) All the external wood-work is painted, grained as old oak, and var- 
nished. The parapet to the projecting window of the dining-room is of stone. 
The conservatory is constructed of fir, on a brick foundation. 

In the alternative design, the general facing, or throughout the height, would 
be of the best malm-bricks, buff or light yellow in colour ; whilst the decoration, 1 
exclusive of the stone-work, would be of bricks of deep red colour, with inter- 
mixture of Suffolk white bricks. The roof-covering is shown varied with courses 
of ornamental tiles; whilst the verge-boards are plainer than in the executed 
design. 

All the external walls are battened internally. All the floors are boarded of 
l|-inch yellow deal, excepting the floor of the basement, which is brick-paved, 
and excepting the floors of the conservatory, the porch, and the entrance-and- 
staircase halls, which are paved with Minton's ornamental encaustic tiles. The 
chimney-pieces generally are of Bath stone, and were designed for their situations. 
The staircase is constructed of fir, with an ornamental balustrade, partly in 
wrought iron- work. The joiners' work, specially designed, included that of the 
interior doors (Plate XXXV.) The windows have boxing-shutters. The prin- 
cipal rooms have moulded skirtings, and enriched plaster cornices. 

In the house at Farnborough Hill, erected for Mr. Thomas Longman, of the 
well-known publishing firm, the half-mullions of the windows are of teak. They 
are framed with a head, half-transom, and sill, all of the same material. The 
sill forms part of the external framing of the walls, to which the jamb-mullion 
is tongued. The sliding sashes are as usual; and the deal-cased frame in which 
they are fixed has a sill of its own, set upon the other. The bottom-rail of the 
top -sash, and the top -rail of the bottom -sash, at the meeting, are concealed 

L 



42 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



externally by the half-transom, and internally by a facing in deal, which is 
elaborately moulded, to prevent what would otherwise be the appearance of 
heaviness. This description may suffice to explain what is one mode lately 
adopted with the object of reconciling the external effect of windows of the 
mediaeval character with the modern English arrangement of sashes. 

We should mention that in the Mill Green Cottage, the water from the roofs 
is conducted from eaves-gutters, by external down-pipes, in the usual manner, 
— though the arrangement is not clearly shown in our plates. To the rain-water 
pipes in the more recent house, there are heads of highly ornamental character, 
the usual small overflow-shoots from the heads having somewhat similar forms 
to those of the stone gargoyles in old buildings. 

The Mill Green Cottage was built, in 1845 as we have said, under a contract, 
the amount being £1400, excluding the tower and the conservatory. The tower 
cost £180, and the conservatory £250. Thus the total cost, at the prices of the 
time, would be £1830. The alternative design, considering the rise in materials 
and labour, will probably now cost an equal sum. 

The drawings for these plates, and for the plate which follows, were reduced 
for the engraver by Mr. H. W. Lonsdale, a pupil of Mr. Kendall. 



ENTRANCE GATES, 

PLATE XXXVI. 

' HIS plate shows the gates which are attached to the house described 
above, and illustrated in Plates XXX.-XXXV., as well as the 
entrance that would be suited to grounds of the house of the 
alternative design, all the designs being by Mr. Kendall. The 
materials and construction will be sufficiently understood from the plate itself, 
or after perusal of the description belonging to the other plates. 




KINGSMUIB COTTAGE, 



NEAR PEEBLES. 

DAVID COUSIN, ARCHITECT, EDINBURGH. 

PLATES XXXVII. XXXVIII. 



N a rising ground, called Kingsmuir, to the south-west of the pleasant 
little town of Peebles, this cottage was erected in the year 1855. 
The house faces the south-east, and commands a magnificent view of 
the vale of the Tweed and the surrounding country; diversified by 
hill and valley, glades and woodlands. 

The entrance-door is sheltered by a recessed porch or verandah; entering 
which, and turning to the left, you pass through an outer lobby, or vestibule, 
which is lighted from the front, and separated from the inner lobby by a glass 
door with side-lights. On left of inner lobby is the drawing-room, lighted by a 
bay-window in entrance front; and beyond it the dining-room, having a project- 
ing window in south front : opening out of the latter is a light store-closet. On 
right of lobby is a room suitable for either parlour or bed-room, as may be 
desired ; which, also, is provided with a large closet. Entering on the left under 
the stair there is a water-closet, lighted from and ventilated by the roof; and 
on the right are the kitchen-offices, namely, kitchen, wash-house, coal-cellar, and 
servants' water-closet. A stair from wash-house leads to servants' bed-room 
over same. On the upper floor there are three bed-rooms and a dressing-room, 
with four large closets, besides the servants' bed-room having separate access 
as already referred to. The staircase and landings, as well as the lobby below, 
are well lighted by a large roof-light, which is shown in the section on line c d. 

The height of ceilings in principal storey is 11 feet 6 inches. The height of 
bed-rooms in higher portion of building is 10 feet 9 inches, and in lower 9 ft. 6 in. 
All the bed-rooms being partially in the roof are to that extent camp-ceiled. 



44 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



The external walls are of freestone from Musselburgh Quarry, distant by 
road about twenty -one miles. Where they are two storeys high they are 
2 feet thick, and where only one storey 1 foot 9 inches. The walling is chiefly 
of rubble, squared at joints, and hammer-dressed on beds and faces, with quoins 
of tooled ashlar. The projection in front-gable, about and over bay-window, and 
also of the dining-room window, is of tooled ashlar, with rubbed reveals. The 
piers at verandah and the chimney-stacks are likewise of tooled ashlar. The 
principal stairs are of rubbed Arbroath stone, the steps having moulded edges. 
The floors of kitchen-offices are laid with tooled Arbroath pavement. The roofs 
are covered with gray slates from Glen- Almond, Perthshire, disposed in orna- 
mental bands. The gutters, including those of eaves, the valleys, and chimney- 
flashings, are of 61b. lead. The ridges are covered with terra-cotta ridge-tiles 
and cresting, bedded in and pointed with Roman cement. The chimney-shafts 
are terra-cotta. 

The roofing, wall-plates, joists, sleepers, bond-timbers, wall-battening, lintels, 
and beams, also the windows and other external wood-work, are of best Memel 
timber. The flooring is of Baltic white wood. The other internal wood finish- 
ings are of American yellow pine. The drawing-room and dining-room have 
moulded skirtings, framed and moulded shutters, window -backs, jambs, and 
soffites, and double - fascia door and window architraves. The bed -room 
windows have framed and moulded shutters and backflaps, and moulded door 
and window architraves. The windows of principal rooms are glazed with 
plate glass, the others with 21-oz. sheet glass. The three sitting-rooms have 
marble chimney-pieces. 

The cost was considerably increased by the extent of land -carriage of 
materials. The particulars here given are from the tradesmen's accounts: — 



Masonry and Bricklaying, ......... £565 

Carpentry, Joinery, Glazing, and Ironmongery, 445 

Plumbing 42 

Slating 50 10 

Plastering, 49 

Gasfitting and Bellhanging 21 19 

Encaustic Tiles and Marble Chimney-pieces, . . - . . . 20 18 



Total, . . . £1194 7 



X 
X 

>< 



a 

CO 

SS 



<1 



w 
l-J 

P3 

CP 
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Q 





DOUBLE VILLA, 



AT LANGSIDE, NEAR GLASGOW. 

A. & G. THOMSON, ARCHITECTS, GLASGOW. 



PLATES XXXIX. -XLI. 



ANGSIDE, where, in 1856-57, this double villa was erected, is 
about two miles south of Glasgow, and adjoining what is now the 
Queen's Park. With other lands adjacent to the Park the locality 
is becoming an important offshoot, or suburb, of Glasgow. The 
Langside lands consist chiefly of the pleasure-grounds surrounding the old 
mansion of that name, which are now laid out for building purposes, with drives 
formed through the woods and shrubberies. The views obtained from the 
more elevated portions of Langside are extensive and fine. 

This building has a peculiarity of plan. While the two houses are exact 
duplicates of one another, their fronts are turned in opposite directions, an 
arrangement suggested by the site, which is one between two parallel roads, 
that provide approaches to each of the fronts. The effect of each of the fronts 
is that of a villa of good size, instead of presenting, according to the usual mode 
of arrangement, two small villas combined. In this w T ay each house looks much 
larger than it really is, greater variety is imparted to the design, and greater 
privacy is gained for the occupiers of the houses, the front doors being on oppo- 
site sides, and the back doors at opposite ends, of the block. The front of the 
one house faces the east, and the other the west, and the views from them 
are equally good in both directions. The general character and detail of the 
design is an adaptation of the Greek. 

On a limited piece of suburban land, too narrow for four rows of good houses, 
and too wide for two rows, such a plan as this may be found eligible. Were 

the land intersected lengthwise by two parallel roads, the outer sides of these 

. M 




4( > VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 

roads occupied by houses fronting inwards, and the space between the roads 
by a series of semi-detached houses, arranged like this example at Langside ; 
the centre row facing as it would do both ways, would thus afford the means 
of placing three rows of houses on the ground, without having the back of 
any one of them turned to the front of the other. 

Each house contains a dining-room, a drawing-room, a kitchen, three bed- 
rooms, a servants' sleeping-closet, a bath-room, and closets, in two floors, within 
the main portion of the area of the plan, or within a space which may be 
roughly stated as about 33 feet by 31 feet; and has, as a one-stoiy addition, 
the ordinary domestic offices, and an inclosed court-yard. 

Ground Story.— The entrance, which is at the top of a series of steps, 
has double doors, the inner door glazed, and the outer doors hung folding so 
as to be allowed to remain open by day. The inner door leads into a vestibule, 
7 ft. 6 in. square, but having a large recess on one side, as well as a fire-place on 
the side opposite. There is still an inner door separating this space from the 
lobby and staircase. From this lobby there opens the door of the dining-room, 
and of a bed-room that is on the ground-floor, as well as a sub-lobby leading 
to the kitchen. In this sub-lobby is the door of a china closet. The dining- 
room would measure 19 ft. by 16 ft.; but forming an addition to its space 
is a projecting window, measuring 11 ft. in width, by 5 ft. 9 in. for the clear 
projection or inside-depth. Opening from the dining-room is a store-closet. 
6 ft, square. It forms part of the one-story addition to the block. The floor 
of this closet is divided into nine compartments, which are made to lift, and 
afford access to wine-bins that are formed in brick- work below. Attached 
to the kitchen, similarly, is a small scullery, which has an entrance from the 
court-yard. Also attached to the kitchen is a pantry; and over this and the 
china-closet, reached by steps from the kitchen, is the servants' sleeping-closet, 
10 ft. 6 in. by 6 ft. The remainder of the ground-floor includes, out of doors, 
a convenient and well-lighted wash-house, a small larder, a shed for roots, a 
place for coals, and other conveniences, the whole grouped around the yard 
or court, through which is the back-entrance. The height of the principal 
rooms on this floor is 12 ft. in the clear. 

Chamber Floor,— Here are a drawing-room, 19 ft. by 15 ft., abundantly 
lighted by a group of windows occupying the whole of the front and a portion 
of the ends; two bed-rooms, having each a dwarf wardrobe-closet attached; a 



DOUBLE VILLA AT LANGSIDE. 



47 



small napery-closet; and a room containing a bath and W. C, which is lighted 
and ventilated by an opening above the wardrobe-closets. The general height 
of these rooms is 10 ft. in the clear; but the ceiling of the drawing-room is 
carried up within the roof-space, where the height becomes 11 ft. 6 in.; and 
gain of effect results. The whole of these arrangements will be clearly under- 
stood from the section (Plate XL.) 

Reverting to the decorative character of the exterior, it may be observed, 
that, connected with the reversed arrangement of the houses on the ground, 
there is this advantage for effect, that the comparatively plain back of one house 
serves to enhance the richer front of the other, and to procure emphasis in one 
part of the composition. To conduce to this, there are certain variations of 
detail; some of which may be clearer in the perspective view than they can be 
in any elevation. The columnar character of the dining-room and drawing- 
room windows is relieved by the plain windows with broad wall spaces of the 
lower story, whilst its effect is repeated in a subdued manner by the five lights 
in a row forming the upper tier of windows. In the design of the porch the 
aim has been to harmonize and connect the two modes of treatment, by making 
it partake of the richness of the one and the simplicity of the other. The one- 
story offices at the ends serve to gradate the higher mass to the level which 
is lowest of all, namely that of certain inclosure-walls and terraces, and to the 
ground itself. 

As to the construction: the external walls, which, for the main portion 
of the structure, are 2 feet in thickness, are built of free-stone from Giffnock 
Quarries, about two miles south of Langside. The outer-facing, generally, is 
composed of irregularly coursed rubble, squared on the joints, and hammer- 
dressed on the outer face. To maintain the horizontal character of the design, 
many of the stones consist of flags, 5 to 6 ft. in length, laid flat, the edges 
forming the exposed faces. All the pilasters, antse-pilasters or square piers, 
cornices, stone-lintels, blocking-courses, copings, sills, and reveals or ingoings 
of openings, are finished with tooled work, a finer margin being carried round 
all the openings on both faces. The portion of wall over the wide span where 
is the projecting window of the dining-room, is carried by a cast-iron girder, 
or bressummer, of the I section, 12 in. by 12 in., having a bottom flange of 
1| inch thick, and a web and top flange each of If inch thick. The wood 
used for the lintels, wall-plates, sleepers, and window-sashes and cases, and 



48 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE 



for the outside-doors, is Quebec red pine. The floor-boarding is of white pine 
battens; and all the other material for carpenters' work and joiners' work is 
American yellow pine. The partition between the large bed-room and the bath- 
room, and the partitions of the wardrobe-closets, are of timber, lathed and 
plastered. All the other partitions are of 4J-inch brick-work. The floor of 
the vestibule is laid with Minton's encaustic tiles ; the floors of the offices are 
of asphalte ; and all the other floors are boarded. 

To prevent the rising of damp from the soil, Caithness paving-stone is 
worked in as a bed in the walling, immediately below the level of the sleepers 
of the lower floor; and to prevent the ingress of moisture through the thickness 
of the walls, as from rain, the walls externally are pointed with hydraulic lime, 
and the joints painted with white lead; whilst the great projection of the eaves 
is designed partly for the same object. 

The roofs being of a low pitch, large Welsh slates are used, with extra lap. 
The projections of the gables and eaves consist of very large slates; which, in the 
case of the gables, are supported on cantilevers, or over-sailing timbers; whilst 
the slates at the eaves are carried on ornamental cast-iron brackets, secured to 
a plate of timber, which is fixed to the wall-plate, and to the ends of the common 
rafters. A slate-fillet is laid over the junction of the large slates, above each 
bracket, and fixed to its flange with small nuts and screws. This arrangement 
of the eaves is shown in the portion of the elevation which is enlarged in Plate 
XLI. The ridges are covered, and the valleys laid, with lead of 6 lbs. to the 
square foot. The downward flow of rain-water is thus provided for. To avoid 
external disfigurement, the gutters are set in from the eaves, so much as is 
necessary for their being on a level with the top of the walls ; and the water 
is led into the soil-pipes of the W. C.s, and other pipes inside the building. 

The dining-room windows have sashes, the upper ones fixed, the lower 
hung, and having a travel upwards of 4 ft. 6 in., and downwards of 6 in., leaving 
thereby a space for ventilation between the upper and lower sashes. The sashes 
are placed behind the cases instead of on each side, and have a clear space be- 
tween them and the stone pilasters. By this mode of arrangement less timber is 
exposed to view, and the joints of the wood-work are protected from the action 
of the weather. The drawing-room windows have French casements, placed with 
reference to the stone- work in a similar manner. (See the details, Plate XLI.) 
The windows of the other rooms have sashes double-hung in the usual way. 



DOUBLE VILLA AT LANGSIDE. 



49 



All the windows have plate-glass, the lower parts of the lower range of small 
windows being obscured, and those of the offices being rough plate. 

The section (Plate XL.) gives some idea of the internal finishings and 
decorations; which are made accordant with the external character of the house. 
In the dining-room small isolated pilasters of wood, 2 in. square, are placed 
between the window openings, at a sufficient distance from the sashes to allow 
space for the working of blinds and curtains; and similar pilasters are repeated 
at the angles of the room, and on each side of the doors. These pilasters are 
surmounted by a frieze and cornice of wood carried entirely round the room, 
which where it crosses the window serves the purpose of a curtain box. Below 
this frieze the walls are lined with narrow boards, chamfered on their edges. 
The whole of these interior finishings are of carefully selected yellow pine, the 
enrichments being frets of mahogany planted upon it. The wood is varnished, 
preserving its natural colour and markings, no stain of any kind being used. 
The object of this mode of treatment is to unite together the several parts of 
the room, thereby giving an effect of increased extent. The apparent height 
of ceiling is also enhanced by giving force to the lower mass of the walls, and 
so making them serve as does a foreground to a picture. The drawing-room is 
treated in a similar manner, the only difference being that the small frieze and 
cornice are carried round the room at the level of the tops of the windows, and 
that it appears as an architrave to the principal cornice, with an intervening frieze. 



The cost of this double villa was as here given :— 

Excavator's, Mason's, and Brick layer's works, . ... £946 6 11 
Carpenter's and Joiner's work, including Ornamental work to windows, 

finials, and eaves-brackets, and Ironmongery in general, . . 679 (I 

Slater's work and Cliimney-tops, 48 1 1 

Asphalte work, 31 4! 

Glass, and Glazier's work 104 

Plumber's work 199 1 

Plasterer's work 110 



Painter's work (executed immediately after the completion of the other works), 81 8 
Marble Chimney-pieces, Gasfitting, Stair-rails, Bellhanging, fee., . (say) 50 

Total for the pair of Houses, . . £2249 11 4* 

The nature of the site was such as to eutail considerable outlay in excava- 
tion, and in the portion of the structure below the ground-floor level ; which 
space, excepting beneath the store-closet, is not capable of being appropriated 
to any increase of accommodation. 

N 



GrOLDHANGrEB EECTOEY, 



NEAR MALDON, ESSEX. 

EWAN CHRISTIAN, ARCHITECT, LONDON 



PLATES XLII.-XLIV. 



^OLD HANGER is a village to the east of Maldon, in the fiat marshy 
part of Essex north of the estuary of the Blaekwater. The Rectory, 
illustrated in our plates, was erected in the years 1851-52. The 
building must be considered remarkable for the amount of accom- 
modation provided as compared with the cost. Its decorative character corres- 
ponds almost exactly with that of the true Tudor domestic Gothic style. A 
Rectory being intended to last for generations, and the law of ecclesiastical 
dilapidations, which requires an incumbent to keep his house in proper repair, 
being very stringent, it becomes important that parsonages houses be built in a 
plain and substantial manner. In this house, therefore, care has been taken to 
provide materials and workmanship the best of their several kinds, and to avoid 
all ornamental features which would involve costly or frequent expenditure for 
their preservation. 

The house contains a drawing-room, a dining-room, a study, a housekeeper's 
room, a storeroom, a butler's pantry, and a kitchen, in the principal block, to 
which is attached a conservatory ; whilst there is a one-story addition contain- 
ing a large scullery, brewhouse and bakery, and places for coals and wood: the 
main block also contains cellars; and there are nine bed-rooms of various sizes, 
and two dressing-rooms, — two of the bed-rooms being in the roof. 

The aspects of the drawing-room are south-west and south-east ; and those 
of the dining-room and study are a little south of east, — the modification by the 
bow-windows not being taken into account in this statement. There is no 
prospect that required to be considered. 




GOLDHANGER RECTORY. 



51 



The ground-floor in the main block of the house is raised about 4 feet 
6 inches above the highest part of the site, so as to avoid sinking the base- 
ment-floor deeper than might be absolutely needful; and terraces with grass- 
slopes are formed on the south and east sides, and on part of the west side. 

Ground Floor. — The entrance is placed on the west side of the building, 
within an open porch. The landing in front of the door is reached by steps, 
which are under and within the archway of the porch. The door itself is 
hung in a glazed screen. The hall is separated from the principal staircase 
by an open arcade of two arches, as shown in the cross-section (Plate XLIV.) 
The drawing-room door is on the right-hand side of the hall, and the dining- 
room door faces the spectator on entering, — the two rooms being planned at 
right angles to one another. Each of these rooms is lighted by a bay-window 
at its end, and a three-light window at the side. In the angle formed by the 
external walls of the two rooms, the conservatory is placed, with south and east 
aspects, the flue for the heating-apparatus being carried up in the re-entering 
angle of the walls. The drawing-room, conservatory, and dining-room may be 
thrown open as a suite, the access to the conservatory being the side-windows of 
these rooms, which open to the floor. There is also an external door to the con- 
servatory on its east side. Entering from the principal staircase there is a cor- 
ridor containing the service-door of the dining-room and the doors of a W.C. and 
of the study. Shut off from the principal part of the house, by a door placed im- 
mediately beyond the study, there are the butler's pantry, the service-window of 
the kitchen, and the back-stairs. Under a portion of the back-stairs, and close to 
the way down to the cellars, a small space is divided off, by a glazed partition, 
as a storeroom ; and close by this is the housekeeper's room. From the space 
where the back -stairs are, there is a short passage in which is the kitchen- 
door. This passage leads, down four steps, into the one-story portion of the house. 
At the bottom of the steps is the place which serves the several purposes of 
a scullery, brewhouse, and bakehouse; whence is a door into the yard. This 
door has, close to it, a trap -way to the cellars ; and it is placed under a 
pent-roof that affords cover to an access to the wood- and coal-shed, to the 
place for ashes, and the servants' W.C, and to the external yard -entrance. 
The pump is in the wood-shed. Another W.C. is placed so as to be accessible 
from the grounds of the house, but having its doorway properly screened off. 
Communicating with the passage of the offices, already mentioned, is one 



52 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



adjoining the scullery, affording access from the principal front of the building 
to the offices. Attached to the kitchen is a cook's pantry lighted from the yard. 
The floor-level in that portion of the building which contains the kitchen, house- 
keeper's room, and back-stairs, is two steps lower than the floor of the principal 
part of the house. This arrangement, with diminished height in the several 
stories, allows of additional rooms, which there are, as attics. The ground-floor 
rooms in the principal part of the house are 11 ft. in the clear height: the kitchen, 
housekeeper's room, and the storeroom are 10 ft. 6 in.; and the scullery and 
<mt-buildings are 8 ft. 6 in. to the top of the walls, but have additional 
height within their roofs. 

Basement.— Considerable space had necessarily to be left below the ground- 
floor; but only a portion of the area occupied by the principal block of the house 
was required for cellarage. This portion is carried down somewhat deeper than 
the rest, and provides the storage for ale, beer, wine, and potatoes; and space 
for a larder and a dairy, as well as for the hot-water apparatus required for 
the conservatory. There are two ways of access to this basement, as already 
mentioned. The height of the cellarage, in the clear, is 7 feet. 

Chamber Floor. — The two chief bed-rooms are over the dining-room and 
drawing-room, and have each a dressing-room attached. One of the bed-room 
suites could be conveniently separated, by its passage, from the rest of the house. 
Each dressing-room has a fire-place. On this floor are a housemaid's closet, and 
a W.C. The clear heights in this story range from 12 feet, in the principal 
rooms, to 9 feet in the room over the housekeeper's sitting-room. 

Attics. — These are over the kitchen and the housekeeper's room. There 
are two bed-rooms, which are separated by a place for lumber. One bed-room 
is lighted by a small window in one of the gables, and the other by a dormer, 
which appears in the east elevation (Plate XLIV.) The lumber-room, in 
which is one of the cisterns, is well lighted from the valley-space between the 
back and front roofs. The window not only affords access to the gutter, but to 
a trap in the roof, through which access is obtained to the cistern that serves 
the W.C.s in the main block of the house. The height of the principal attic 
bed-room is 8 feet in the clear. 

The general facing of the external walls is of red brick : the heads of open- 
ings, the window mullions and sills, and the arches and jambs, in the west front, 



GOLDHANGER RECTORY. 



53 



are of dressed Caen stone; whilst in the other fronts, the heads and sills only are 
of stone. The gables have Caen-stone copings ; and the plinth is of Yorkshire 
stone. The roof is covered with plain red tiles, with courses of ornamental tiles 
at intervals. The ridges are covered with ridge-tiles ; and the valleys (exclusive 
of the valley- gutter in the middle) are laid with valley- tiles. The bricks and 
tiles were procured in the neighbourhood. The valley-gutter, between the front 
and back roofs, is laid with lead, the water from it being conducted into the 
cistern over the W.C.s. The water from the eaves descends by pipes, outside 
the walls, and is stored in a tank which is not shown in our plans. The water 
for drinking is obtained from a well, where the pump is shown : it is pumped up 
to cisterns in the attics and roof; and from them it is laid-on, by lead pipes, 
to the different taps and sinks of the house. The house is well drained. 

The timber employed for carpenter's work was Baltic fir, and for sills of 
window-frames, English oak; whilst Baltic deals and battens were used for joinery 
in general. Timber-partitions, where occurring, are framed and braced in the 
usual manner. The floors are all of single joisting, and laid with 1^-inch yellow 
battens. The walls above bay-windows are carried by bressummers, 12 inches 
square, with solid abutment-pieces for the relieving-arches, spiked on the ends 
of them. The attic-windows have solid wood-frames, and wrought-iron opening- 
casements. The windows of the principal chamber-floor also have solid frames ; 
but they have 2-inch wood casements. On the ground-floor, the window-frames 
of the dining and drawing rooms are solid, and have casements of 2^ inches 
thickness, those above the transoms being hung on centres. The other windows 
are like those of the floor above. The windows of the attics, the back-staircase, 
and the offices are glazed with diamond quarry-glass in lead-lights ; those 
of the principal staircase and the room over the porch with the best glass, in 
ornamental lead-lights. The dining- and drawing-room windows are glazed with 
British plate-glass, and the remainder have best thick crown-glass. The con- 
servatory is glazed with horticultural glass. 

The contract for the house, complete, amounted to £1900; but the total 
cost, including extras, came to a little over £2000. Whilst, however, this 
statement could not be taken as conclusive respecting the cost of a similar 
building now (all prices having risen materially since 1852), we should mention 
that the contractor always alleged that he had under-estimated the cost of this 
Rectory by £200. 



YILLA AT CROSSHILL, 



NEAR GLASGOW. 

JOHN BAIED, ARCHITECT, GLASGOW. 



PLATES XLV. XLVI. 



HIS small villa, called Howburn, was erected at Crossbill, in the 
southern outskirts of Glasgow, adjoining the Queen's Park, in 
the year 1857. It is situated on a road which is lined on each 
side by small villas and cottages surrounded by gardens. From 
this suburban road the ground slopes rapidly to the site of Howburn. The 
northern or entrance front of the house has no view but that of some 
cottages opposite. The view from the southern front is extensive and inter- 
esting. The plan and arrangement is somewhat peculiar, induced by the 
site, and the limited sum for which it was required that this house should 
be built. The principal rooms are placed on the side furthest from the 
entrance, and on the upper floor; the reasons being that they might fully 
command the view, have the southern aspect, and not be overlooked from 
the road and by neighbours on the higher ground. The chief entrance of 
the house, for visitors, gives immediate access to the principal, or upper, floor; 
whilst there is a separate entrance to the more private apartments of the 
lower story, from the ground-level. 

The decorative character of the building is in the main rural Italian. 
This is pronounced in the roofing; which is of low pitch, and has wide pro- 
jecting eaves. The effect of the villa towards the south is not sufficiently 
understood by the elevation on Plate XLVI. : the end elevation on the 
other plate gives certain window-lights which are features at the sides of 
the projection in the front. 

The house occupies, as regards the main block, an area of ground which 




^1 



O to 
Pi < 
o -J 




VILLA AT CROSSHILL. 



55 



may be described roughly as about 40 feet by 34 feet; and it contains two 
sitting-rooms — one on each floor — three bed-rooms, as well as a lighted bed- 
closet; a bath-room and a kitchen, a scullery and a wash-house, besides an 
amount of closet-space, considerable for the size of the house. Further, 
there are out-buildings arranged within a yard, or kitchen-court, the inclos- 
ing walls of which group effectively with the main building. 

Ground Floor. — The entrance-door, on this level, is in one side of the 
projecting portion of the north front, which contains stairs of internal commu- 
nication. The house is entered here, under these stairs; under which also 
is a pantry. The staircase, the entrance-lobby, and the landing on the upper 
floor, are lighted by one tall window. From the lobby lead out the doors of 
the parlour, the kitchen, one bed-room, the pantry, a closet containing the 
bath and a W.C., and a smaller closet. The parlour is lighted by two win- 
dows — one of these internally is a bay (but without lights at the sides) in 
the two-storied projection which is a feature of the south front. Leading- 
out of the parlour is the bed-closet, with separate window ; and also at- 
tached to the parlour is a small store-closet. Attached to the kitchen is a 
small closet with a narrow opening for light and ventilation; and there is 
also a recess for a bed. This latter feature in a kitchen, peculiar to Scot- 
land, is passing out of use. A door from the kitchen leads into the 
scullery ; and attached to the scullery is the wash-house, furnished with 
tubs and a copper, and having a door into the kitchen-court. Near to this 
latter door are two cellars and a coal-shed: these, with the scullery and 
wash-house, are covered by a lean-to roof, which is not seen from the out- 
side. On the other side of the yard are two W.C.s — one of which is entered 
from the garden — a place for ashes, and the door between the yard and the 
garden. The height of the rooms of the ground-floor, in the main block of 
the house, is 9 feet 6 inches in the clear. 

Principal Floor. — A dining-room and two bed-rooms — all the rooms 
on this upper floor — are entered from a square landing at the top of the 
stairs of internal communication. To the same landing the stairs from the 
principal entrance lead up. The threshold itself of this entrance, with the 
floor of the vestibule, is at the level of about half the height of the prin- 
cipal floor above the ground. The plan and section together, on the plates, 
explain the arrangement, and show the division of the ascent into external 



50 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



steps and internal stairs. The dining-room is lighted on two of its sides, 
the principal window .being a large bay, partly corbelled out and overhang- 
ing the front. The rooms of the upper floor are 11 feet in the clear height. 

The material used for the external walls is stone from Giffnock quarries, 
about 3J miles distant. The general masonry is irregular rubble : the dressings 
are tooled. The internal partitions are of brick. To prevent the rise of damp, 
the lowest course of stone is laid on a bed of asphalte 6 inches in thickness, 
which also forms the foundation. On this the walls are built : no foundation- 
stones are used. American red-pine is used in the carpenter's work; the floor- 
boards, 1^ inch in thickness, are of white pine; and the general finishings are 
of yellow pine. The roofing is of the construction usual in the district, the 
common-rafters being placed at intervals of 18 inches, and covered with slate- 
boarding. The outer covering is of Ballachulish slates, of full size. The eaves 
project 2 feet. The ridges and hips are covered with lead, of 5ibs. to the foot; 
and the gutters are lined with lead of 61bs. 

The windows are fitted with hung sashes: those of the principal rooms 
are glazed with plate-glass ; the inferior rooms have sheet-glass ; and the stair- 
case-window has stained glass. 



The cost of the house was as follows : — 

Masonry and Brickwork, £351 13 1 

Asphalte in Foundations, . . . 23 13 10 

Carpenter's and Joiner's work, Ironmongery and general Glazing, . 251 7 9^ 

Slater's work, 20 9 5 

Plasterer's work, 39 5 2j 

Plumber's work, . . . 56 10 11 

Smith's work, 16 10 

Bellhanger's work, . . , . ". 4 10 

Gasfitting, 5 6 

Marble Chimney-pieces, . . . 9100 



£778 16 3 

Painting and plate-glass are not included; but the total stated includes an 
amount of £16, 10s. for iron railings, which are not shown in our view. 



CUBATE'S HOUSE, 



AT GOTHAM, NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 
S. DUTTON WALKER, ARCHITECT, NOTTINGHAM. 



PLATES XLVII. XLVIIL 



OTHAM is a village situate seven miles south of the town of 
Nottingham. The cottage illustrated in the accompanying plates 
was erected in the year 1863. The ground on which it stands 
is in the main street of the village, and forms a corner-plot on 
the western side of the street, adjoining a narrow rural lane. The church, 
and the rectory which adjoins it, are on the opposite side of the street, from 
which the latter building is separated by a shrubbery and trees. 

The entrance-front of the cottage, where are the windows of the principal 
rooms, faces due east, being sheltered by the shrubbery. The church is seen 
at some distance to the north-east, ou the opposite side of the street. One 
of the windows, however, belonging to the drawing-room of the cottage, is 
placed in an angle of the room ; so that it looks south-eastward towards 
open country beyond the rectory-grounds. The south front of the cottage, 
towards the lane, has a conservatory projecting from it. 

The soil is a rich loam; and in beds beneath the surface, are deposits of 
gypsum; which material is largely used in the neighbourhood for conversion 
into plaster of Paris. 

The decorative character of the building is mediajval ; and the ornamental 
details are analogous to those of the early Gothic. Small cost being essential 
in such a building, the general material of the walls, including the facing of 
the fronts, consists of the common bricks, so called, of the district; which, in 
quality and appearance, are nearly as good as the superior bricks of other 
localities. 




58 VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 

The house, without the conservatory, occupies an area of ground 
measuring about 32 feet square, exclusive of the projections of gables, and 
fireplaces and flues— these latter being in all cases external. The rooms are 
arranged in two floors, whereof the chamber-floor is partly within the 
height of the roof. There is a wash-house and brew-house as a detached 
building; and there are some conveniences of the main building also out- 
of-doors. On the ground floor there are a drawing-room, with a small 
study or boudoir attached, a dining-room, a kitchen, and a larder. On the 
upper floor there are four bed-rooms. 

Ground Floor.— A passage, 3 feet 9 inches in width, leads from the 
entrance-door to a small octagonal hall, from which last the stairs to the 
upper floor ascend. In the passage are the doors of the drawing-room and 
dining-room, opposite one another; and in the octagonal hall are those of the 
study and kitchen, besides one to a space under the stairs, which communi- 
cates with the larder. Through the study, access is obtained to the conser- 
vatory, either from the hall or the drawing-room. The study is lighted from 
the conservatory. In the drawing-room, the south-west corner is filled in 
with a book-case, so as to make that corner correspond with the others that 
are angled. The dining-room, which is somewhat smaller than the drawing- 
room, has a glass- and china-closet attached to it. Attached to the kitchen 
are a lighted recess, for a sink, and a closet also lighted. The larder, at the 
south-west angle of the building, is sunk into the ground, with the object of 
getting cool temperature. Underneath the stairs there is a store-place for 
groceries. The height of these rooms of the ground floor is 10 feet in the clear. 

Chamber Floor.— Besides the four bed-rooms, there are a housemaid's closet, 
a lavatory attached to one of the bed-rooms, and a linen-closet attached to the 
other bed-room. The rooms on this floor are 9 feet 6 inches in height. There 
is also a store-room in the roof, reached by a trap in the ceiling of the north- 
west bed-room. 

The external walls are of 1$ brick thickness, in one portion of the plan, 
and 1 brick in the remaining portion. For economy, stone-work has been 
avoided as much as possible. The decorative effect is obtained mainly by 
the treatment of the roof; by the slight projections in the front, along with 
gables; and by the breaks in the gables, which reduce their apparent width. 
The general facing-work of bricks of a rich red colour, is pointed with dark 



CURATE'S HOUSE AT GOTHAM. 59 

blue mortar; occasional bands of Peake's blue Staffordshire bricks are inserted; 
and there are other surface ornaments of the same material. The arches of the 
principal windows and entrance-door (shown in Plate XLVIII.) are formed 
with two rims of bricks, the corners of which are splayed or "canted," and an 
outer rim of Peake's blue Staffordshire bricks. In one of the rims of splayed 
bricks, the alternate bricks have the splays in reversed positions. The angle of 
the building, in which the drawing-room window is placed, is carried by a stone 
shaft 6 inches in diameter, with a base and a neck-moulding, and a foliated 
capital. The sill, or shelf, at the back of the shaft, forms a convenient place 
for plants in bloom. The chimney-stacks have received their peculiar char- 
acter in the endeavour to avoid unoccupied spaces, or "pockets," in them, as 
well as from their external disposition. Thus, in the stack which appears 
in the view (Plate XL VII.), every part of the interior is occupied by flues 
or fireplace, or both together. The brick-work at the base of the building 
is thickened 4J inches, to form the plinth. The internal partitions are of 
4i-inch brick-work. The bricks were brought from a distance of a mile 
and a half. The stone is of the kind generally used in Nottingham, which 
is obtained from Hollington, distant perhaps forty miles. It was worked 
in Nottingham; and thence the worked material was carted to the site of 
the house. 

The conservatory is an inexpensive structure, having for its decorative 
features, cresting to the ventilating-ridge and eaves, and spandrel-pieces to 
the heads of the lights, all executed in cast-iron. These ornamental details 
are shown in Plate XLVIII. The same plate gives an elevation of the entrance- 
gate, with a portion of the ornamental fence-wall : the following references 
explain the construction of the latter: — 

REFERENCES TO ELEVATION OF FENCE-WALL. 

AA, coping, Hollington stone: db, course of common bricks, laid longitudinally: cc, bricks laid edgewise, 
and splayed at both ends: db, piers formed of three courses of bricks laid flat and transversely: El, splayed 
brick plinths, with stones, GO, inserted at every interspace to carry the cast-iron ornaments: hi, courses of 
blue Staffordshire bricks laid flatwise. 

For the carpenter's work the best Gottenburg timber was used. Clean 
red deal was used for joiner's work ; and, having been specially prepared, the 
work was stained and varnished. The flooring is formed of joists 7 inches by 
24 inches, and of 1-inch white-deal boarding laid with straight joints. 



60 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



The window-openings are all fitted with hinged casements, excepting the 
angular one, which has sliding sashes. There are no shutters ; plate-glass 
has, from its thickness, been considered a substitute, with addition of a good 
lock-fastener to the casement or sash ; whilst the glass gives improved ap- 
pearance. 

To keep down damp, a layer of boiled tar and finely-washed Trent sand, 
£th of an inch thick, was laid on the course of bricks forming the top of the 
external plinth. Gratings, to admit air and prevent dry-rot, were inserted 
in the walls, not only as regards the space below the flooring of the ground- 
story, but as regards that of the roof. 

The roof was covered with Bangor slates, from the Penrhyn quarries, of 
the small size called ladies, fastened with copper nails of the weight of Sifts, 
to the thousand. The ridges were capped with Peake's terro-metallic tiles, 
with ornamental cresting set in dark-coloured cement. 

The amount of the original contract for the building was £329, 10*. But 
as there were some additions, the cost of the house, with the fence-walls and 
the wash-house, ultimately stood as given below, the total at the foot of the 
account being the sum actually paid. 

Contract with builder, . , . £329 10 

Tessellated Pavement for hall, ■ 6 10 () 

Forming a W.C., cesspit, and drain, ....... 16 

Ornamental fence-wall (80 lineal feet) and entrance-gate, . 34 

Conservatory, exclusive of internal fittings 30 

Rain-water cistern; Flue to Conservatory; extra for Chimney-pieces and 

grates, or more than allowed in contract ; Cornice in entrance-hall ; 

Force-pump ; and building a Wash-house, ... 87 7 11 

£503 7 11 



STRATH COTTAGE, 



DUMBARTON. 

J. T. ROCHEAD, ARCHITECT, GLASGOW. 



PLATES XLIX. L. 



TRATH COTTAGE, the subject of the accompanying plates, was 
erected in 1853. Its site, at the outskirts of the town of Dum- 
barton, and near to the railway-station, is somewhat low; but the 
back of the house, where the library is, commands a view of 
Dumbarton Rock and Castle. The aspect of the principal front is north-west. 
Including the garden, the ground does not exceed one statute or English acre. 

This house was designed with the view of producing, at limited cost, a 
more picturesque character than is usually attained in small houses that are 
square in plan. The large projecting window is balanced by the entrance-door, 
which latter is placed towards one end of the front; and the internal passages 
are so arranged as to be less liable to produce draughts, than where they 
lead more directly from the front to the back-entrance. 

The decorative character of the design resembles that of the late Tudor- 
cottage style : though there are no stone mullions to the windows ; whilst eaves 
and gable-roofing that overhang the walls, with wooden finials and pendants, 
are features of the fronts. The projections are of importance in a moist climate. 

The building occupies an area of 42 feet by 34 feet, exclusive of pro- 
jections. It has two storeys; of which the upper one is, the greater part of it, 
in the roof, though made as convenient as that arrangement admits, by the 
introduction of gables to the windows of the drawing-room and staircase, and 
dormers to the bed-rooms and the front dressing-room, — the other windows of 

the upper storey being beneath the main-gables. There are three sitting-rooms 

Q 




62 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



and four bed-rooms, besides a recess for a servant's bed. Rooms of the two 
kinds are on each floor. Provision of a considerable amount of convenience, 
as in dressing-rooms and closets, characterizes the house generally. 

Ground Floor.— The principal entrance, at the top of a flight of steps, 
leads into a vestibule. A lobby, lighted from the front of the house, and in 
which there is the door of a bed-room, leads into a well-lighted staircase-hall. 
In this are the doors of the dining-room and the parlour or library, and 
of a sub -lobby under the stairs leading to the kitchen. In this part of 
the plan, also, is a press, or closet, convenient of access from the dining-room; 
whilst there is another closet opposite the kitchen-door; and there is a wine- 
cellar under the stairs; of which the entrance is from the parlour. Opening 
out from the kitchen is a second closet, besides the recess for a servant's bed. 
A small scullery, provided with a sink and dresser, projects from the back of 
the house ; and here is a back-door, at the top of steps. The position of these 
is marked at the end of the house by a bit of dwarf- walling, or plinth; so that 
the entrance is readily discovered from the front. A large bow-window to the 
dining-room, and a closet to the bed-room, are other features of the plan. The 
rooms of this floor are 11 feet in the clear height. 

Chamber Floor. — Here is the drawing-room: there are three bed-rooms, 
two of which have dressing-rooms attached ; and there are also a bath- 
room and W.C. together, a store-closet, and a closet to be used as a ward- 
robe, or for linen. On this floor the rooms are 11 feet in the height to the 
ceiling in the highest part, and 7 feet in the lowest, or where the slope corres- 
ponding with that of the roof begins. Dotted lines on the plan mark where 
the slope, back and front of the building, ends, and show the extent of the 
flat ceiling. 

The external walling is of free-stone, from Dumbarton Quarry, about a mile 
distant. The general masonry is neat rubble-work, pointed with hydraulic lime 
or Portland cement. The door- and window-dressings are tooled ; and so also 
are the coin-stones, which project about an inch from the general facing. 
Caithness paving-stone, a course of one inch in thickness, is built in the four 
outer walls, as well as in the internal walls (which are of brick), below the 
under-side of the base -course of the house, to prevent rise of damp. The 
compactness of the material, and the mortar or cement used, together with the 
projections of the roofing, prevent influx of damp through the walls. Walls 



STRATH COTTAGE. 



63 



of whinstone are more liable to leakiness than those of the material used 
in the present case. Besides the provisions mentioned, there are gratings. 
12 inches by 6 inches, on the four sides of the house, for ventilation of the 
spaces below the ground-floor. 

The timber used for window-sashes and frames, outside doors, and other 
exposed wood-work, as in the case of overhanging eaves, finials, and pendants, 
is American red-pine. The general carpenter and joiner's work of the interior 
of the building is executed in American yellow-pine ; but the flooring-boards 
are of white Norway battens 1| inch thick. 

The slater's work is done with full-sized West Highland slates. The slates 
are let into grooves cut in the stone-work of the chimneys; and at the eaves 
and dormers they are inserted below the wooden coping, so as to show their 
outer edges. 

The water is led from this roof by gutters (of 6 lb. lead), which are carried 
through the tops of the dormers, front and back of the house, to rain-water 
down-pipes, of 2£ inches diameter; the positions of which are marked on the 
plans. The roof of the bay-window is covered with lead — the edges of the 
lead being dressed, overlapping, on the edges of the boarding. 

The steps at the front-entrance have balustrades of the Elizabethan or 
Jacobean chai-acter, with ball-crowned pedestals. 

The cost of this house was as follows : — 



Masonry and Bricklaying, ......... £310 (> 4 

Carpentry, Joinery, Glazing, and Ironmongery, 413 7 s 

Plastering, . . . . , , , . . , /. t 57 9 11 

Plumbing 58 10 2 

Sla t m g. 28 16 3 

Marble Chimney-pieces, . . . . , , . _ 15 11 

£884 1 4 



The above statement includes plate-glass for the main-front, as well 
as the ordinary glass, but excludes the staircase- window ; which is of stained 
glass: it also excludes bellhanging, painting, and gasfitting. 



VILLA AT (jEANTHAM, 



NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 

HINE & EVANS, ARCHITECTS, NOTTINGHAM. 



PLATES LI. LII. 



HIS House, erected in 1864, is situate on the eastern side of the 
town of Grantham. The principal front has a southern aspect, 
and looks towards the new cemetery. The militia -barracks are 
to the north. On other sides there is open country of pleasing- 
character. The substratum on which the foundations of the building rest, is 
sandy and very dry. 

The decorative appearance of the villa resembles that of the " Double Villa 
at Derby," by the same architects (Plates XXII. XXIII.) The niediasval 
character is departed from in the forms of some of the openings, and by 
the omission of mullions to the windows, and the use of sliding-sashes. 

The main -block of the building occupies an area of about 50 feet by 
46 feet, measuring-in certain projections ; whilst an attached block at the 
back occupies a space of 23 feet by 18 feet 6 inches. There are two ordi- 
nary storeys — the upper one being partly within the roof; and under a 
portion of the main-block are cellars. There are three family living-rooms, 
and a gun-room, or business -room ; a complete set of offices, six bed-rooms, 
and two dressing-rooms. The principal staircase occupies the centre of the 
main-block, and is lighted from a lantern at the top, through a square well-hole 
of the landing and stairs. 

Ground Floor. — The principal entrance to the house is at one side, 
looking westward. The door opens directly into the hall; which latter is 
lighted by windows at the sides of the door, and by a fan-light. Close to 




VILLA AT GRANTHAM. 



65 



the entrance is the door of the "gun-room." This room has two windows ; 
one of which commands the approach to the entrance of the house. The 
principal stairs ascend from the entrance-hall. In a widened portion of this 
hall, or rather in the staircase -hall proper, are doors of the drawing-room, 
breakfast -room, and dining-room; of a store-room; and of a way, under the 
stairs, to the back-stairs and offices, and to the back-entrance of the house. 
From the staircase-hall, also, and under the principal stairs, is the way down 
to the cellars. The breakfast-room and drawing-room communicate with one 
another by folding-doors. The drawing-room has a bay-window ; and at the 
side of the fireplace — which is in an external wall — is another window, com- 
manding the approach, and corresponding with a window of the gun-room 
already mentioned. The dining-room has a somewhat similar arrangement 
of a fireplace and a window ; whilst the end of the room is occupied by a 
peculiar group of three square bay-windows; the two smaller are set on the 
angle, and thus a view of the country, embracing an angle of 90 degrees, 
may be enjoyed from near the centre of the room. Each of the principal 
rooms looks to the south. It will be observed that the offices and back-stairs 
can be completely shut off from the rest of the house. Close to the ascent 
of the back-stairs are the back-door and the doors of the kitchen and butler's 
pantry. Attached to the kitchen is a scullery, whence there is a way to a 
larder and to a second back-door, which affords external access to a staircase 
to the man-servant's bed -room, and to a loft over it. The rooms on the 
ground-storey are 12 feet in the clear height. 

Basement. — This occupies the space under the drawing-room, breakfast- 
room, and entrance-hall. It is confined to provision of a wine-cellar and two 
ale- cellars. They have a clear height of 8 feet. 

Chamber Floor. — There are four principal bed-rooms, if we include one 
that is reached from the back-stairs; besides which one of the dressing-rooms 
is large enough for use as a bed-room. There is also a maid-servant's bed- 
room, reached by steps from the landing of the back-stairs; and there is a 
man-servant's room, with its own staircase, or entirely shut off from the body 
of the house. The small dressing-room (with fire-place at the side of a 
window), a linen-closet, and a W. C. complete the chamber-floor. The height 
of the rooms on this floor is 9 feet at the commencement of the roof-slope, and 
12 feet in the highest part where the ceiling is flat. 

R 



66 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



Over the man-servant's bed-room, the room or loft is entirely within the 
roof. A window to it appears in the North Elevation. 

The walls of the house are of brick. The external walls are of the 
thickness of one brick and a half: the bricks are those of the locality. The 
general facings are of dressed red bricks. Voussoirs of the arches, and some 
other features of the front, are executed in the Staffordshire blue bricks. The 
provision to prevent rise of damp consists of a course of slates laid in cement, 
in the walls immediately under the level of the ground-flooring. The copings, 
weatherings, and dressings of doors and windows are all of fine oolite stone, 
from the Ancaster quarries, which are about seven miles from the spot. 

The roof is covered with Welsh slates; and the ridges are covered with 
Staffordshire ornamental ridge-tiles. The carpentry of the roof is of very 
simple character; the common -rafters are carried by purlins which rest on 
the partition- and gable-walls; whilst at intervals of 10 feet in the length of 
each space of roof, the feet of the rafters, with the wall-plates on which they 
rest, are secured together by timber-ties. The water from the central "flat " 
is conveyed by a trough -gutter through the eastward-roof to the external 
down-pipe. 

The joiner's work throughout the interior is executed in clean red deal; 
which is slightly stained, and then coated with the best copal -varnish. This 
mode of finishing wood-work, (which certainly admits of effect, produced by the 
grain of the wood,) is now not uncommon, and is by some architects preferred 
to painting, both for effect, and because it necessitates, in selection of the 
material, that care which favours durability. Such care as is necessary for the 
effect, however, it is not easy to insure; and it is often difficult to avoid knots 
that are loose or are eyesores, instead of sources of beauty; whilst the cost 
of some items is increased: thus hinges should be brass. 

The filling-in for the glass of the ordinary windows has been referred to. 
The angle -windows of the dining-room form exceptions to the sliding-sash 
arrangement : each opening is filled-in with a single sheet of glass, and becomes 
a picture-window, affording an unimpeded view of the landscape. Plate-glass 
is used for the glazing of the windows of the reception-rooms, entrance-hall, 
and three best bed-rooms. 

The cost of this house, exclusive of boundary-walls, stables, &c, was £1550. 





FLAN OF GROUND FLOOR. PLAN OF CHAMBER FLOOR 




Banks K; Barry. Architects 



Rob 1 - Amlersisa Engraver. 



ELACKJE & SOS. GLASGOW. ETjIMliLUGE iLONDtiH 



YILLA AT DULWICH WOOD PARK, 



SYDENHAM HILL, NEAR LONDON. 
BANKS & BARRY, ARCHITECTS, LONDON. 



PLATES LIII. LIV. 




|'N architect's thought devoted to his own house should be of value 
even to other architects. It is not often, however, that architects 
live in houses of their own contrivance; and we are fortunate in 
being able to present on these plates, illustrating a villa at Dulwich 
Wood Park, and in the two of Worcester Lodge that follow them, two examples 
out of the very limited number of architects' residences that have been designed 
by their occupants. The interest in, if not value of, these examples will be 
the greater if it be recollected that seldom is the work of an architect pro- 
duced without interference from his employer, such as often tends to prejudice 
result to the employer himself. Somewhat as Pugin stated the case, real 
success is to be achieved only when the architect is " architect and paymaster." 
In other words, then alone is an architect equal with the painter of a picture 
in advantages for production of a work of his art. 

The Plates represent a villa which is the residence of Mr. Robert R. Banks, 
architect; who designed the house. The building is situate at the south end 
of Dulwich Wood Park, or what would here be better described as the ridge 
of Sydenham Hill— near Norwood, in Surrey. It was erected in 1862. It 
stands to the west of the north end of the Crystal Palace, on the opposite 
side of the road from which are the principal entrances to that building. 
The exact site is on the steep side of the hill, and between the level road 
mentioned (towards which is the entrance-front), and a descending road that 
branches out from the other at a point near to the site of the house, and 
that leads to Dulwich. The garden-front is seen from the latter road, elevated 



68 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



30 feet : the effect is, therefore, somewhat different to that shown in our 
Plate (LIV.); which, giving the elevation viewed near at hand, presents the 
basement-storey with greater prominence than it has, excepting when closely 
approached, and omits altogether features of foreground that contribute to the 
picture of which the house bears the leading part. 

It should be understood that the house was contrived for special require- 
ments of a small family, and that the outlay proposed was limited to about £2000. 

The aspect of the entrance-front is, actually, south-east, but shut off, to a 
certain extent, by the Palace : that of the garden-front is north-west. The only 
extensive view from the house being that from the garden-front, all the important 
windows were there contrived in planning. The view extends far over the 
valley of the Thames. Dulwich Woods are close beneath. 

The soil, to a depth of about 40 feet, is a very hard yellow loam, with 
streaks of gravel. Immediately below this is the hard blue London-clay. 

The decorative character of the house corresponds with that of houses of 
the domestic Tudor-Gothic style. The plan was partly governed by the circum- 
stances of site and prospect that have been referred to. The main-building 
occupies an area which may be called 38 feet by 33 feet. Including the base- 
ment, there are three principal storeys ; and some more than ordinarily con- 
venient rooms of the sort are provided entirely within the height of the external 
slopes of the roof. The residential accommodation includes three living- or 
reception-rooms (besides a billiard-room), eight bed-rooms of all kinds, a bath- 
room, a conservatory, and ample oflices. 

Ground Floor, — The front-door, to the right hand, looking at the front, 
is placed beneath a wooden porch, or hood, sufficient for shelter. The entrance 
leads into a hall, which is somewhat ornamental, and was purposely planned 
of irregular shape [it has the plan of the letter T], so as to break the rush of 
air into the body of the house, on the opening of the door, — protection especially 
important during prevalence of easterly winds. This hall is lighted by a 
window in the end of the house, near to which is a W. C. Turning to the 
left, having entered, you pass the descent to the basement -storey, and enter 
the staircase-hall ; from which lead out the doors of the dining-room, drawing- 
room, and study. The staircase-hall, whilst of ample space where required, 
or below, is contracted in width on the upper floor, for the sake of a longer 



VILLA AT DULWICH WOOD PARK. 



69 



bed-room. This will be understood from the longitudinal section (Plate LIV.), 
and from lines which are dotted on the plan of the chamber-floor (Plate LIIL). 
The dining-room and the drawing-room both look in the direction of the 
principal view. The first of these rooms has a bay-window, and also a smaller 
window. The study, which is entered by a door from the dining-room, as 
well as by one from the hall, has a door from it into the conservatory, at 
the southern end of the house ; and from the conservatory is a way into the 
garden, by eleven steps down. The basement-stairs are made sightly, as well 
as convenient, since they afford access to the billiard-room. The rooms on 
the ground-storey are 11 feet 4 inches in the clear height. 

Basement. — This storey has the windows in the garden-front wholly above 
the ground. These windows light the billiard-room and the kitchen. There 
is a door that shuts off the kitchen-department from the way to the billiard- 
room. An external door to the basement is at the foot of steps at the end 
of the house: it also opens from the kitchen-court; which is inclosed by plain 
park-pailings — shown in the elevations. The offices include kitchen, scullery, 
larder, beer-cellar (partly under the stairs), wine-cellar (over which is a 
cistern), and a store-room. The rooms and offices in the basement vary from 
10 feet 6 inches, to 9 feet in height. Outside the walls of the main-building 
there ai-e, besides (at the north end of the house) the place for dust and the 
servants' W. C, the furnace-room for the conservatory, and a small workshop 
(also under the conservatory) entered from the garden. 

Principal Chamber-Floor. — Here are four bed-rooms and a bath-room, 
not to mention a convenient little cupboard or press on the landing part-way 
up the stairs. This storey is 8 feet 9 inches in the clear height. 

Attic Storey. — Here are four bedrooms, three of them lighted by dormer 
windows, and the fourth by a small window in the gable above the porch. 
One of them has a fireplace, and another has a large lighted closet attached. 
Cisterns are placed in a space where they can be conveniently got at. The 
rooms are 8 feet in the highest part. The landing at the top of the stairs is 
all of that height. 

As regards the materials of the house, the external walls are of brick, with 
dressings of stone, and mullions to the windows. For the body of the walls, the 
common bricks, procured within half-a-mile distance, were used. The facings 



70 VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 

of the four fronts are of red bricks, of superior quality and colour, brought from 
Lowestoft, in Suffolk, 130 miles by sea and land. The work was finished with 
black tuck-pointing. The basement-walls are protected, where below -ground, 
from damp of earth that would otherwise have rested against them, by dry 
areas, shown in the transverse-section. The windows, dressings, string-courses, 
and door -jambs, are in Box Ground stone, from the quarries near Bath. 
Although somewhat coarse-grained, it resists action of the weather better 
than the other kinds of Bath stones. The distance from the quarry to 
Sydenham Hill is about 120 miles— the carriage being by rail and road. 

The partitions are chiefly of timber-quartering; but some of those of the 
ground-floor are of brick, 4J inches thick, set in Roman cement. 

The carpenter's and joiner's work generally is of Baltic timber and deals ; 
but the stairs are of picked American pitch-pine, with ornamental balusters 
and handrail in wainscot. This work in the staircase is not painted, but 
stained and varnished. The floors are filled in, between the joists, with sound- 
boarding and pugging of coarse mortar. All the sashes are glazed with strong 
plate-glass of the best quality. 

The roof-framing is of ordinary construction. The roof-covering is of 
very hard flat tiles, of a fine rich chocolate-red colour, which were made at 
Broseley, in Shropshire. They are placed in bands, or as six rows of ordinary 
shaped tiles to three rows of escaloped. The ridges are covered with ornamental 
tile-cresting. The flat is covered with lead, of 6 lbs. to the foot superficial; of 
which are the flashings also. The water is conveyed from the flat by a lead 
trough-gutter, passing beneath one of the ridges, and thence down the slope 
to the eaves-guttering. 

The actual cost of the house, without ornamental painting, stood thus :— 

Amount of Contract, £1780 

Marble Chimney-pieces, 60 

Stove-grates, Kitchen-range, and Fittings of Bath, . . . 1 CO 

Gasfitting, including ordinary Bracket-lights, but not Gasaliers, . . 30 

Oak-framing to Garden and Gates, 60 

£2009 

The ornamental painting and gilding, executed two years after completion of 
the contract, cost £300 additional; but, in the owner's opinion, less decoration 
— say by £100— would usually suffice. 



WOECESTEE LODGE, 



MIDDLETON EOAD, HOLLOWAY, LONDON. 
GEORGE TltUEFITT, ARCHITECT, LONDON. 



PLATES LV. LVI. 



SECOND example of a house built by an architect for his own 
residence, is the subject of these Plates. It is a house on a 
smaller scale of accommodation than that illustrated in the plates 
immediately preceding - . It is situate close to Camden Road, in 
the Holloway suburb of London, and not very far from Villa-Careno, by the 
same architect, which was illustrated in Plates XXVII. and XXVIII. The 
present subject of illustration, Worcester Lodge, was erected in the year 1859. 

The house faces the south-west, and stands at an angle formed by a 
road and a side-lane. The aspect would not have been adopted in the open 
country; but here the house is one of a range of detached and semi-detached 
villas, each of which occupies very limited ground. The general decorative char- 
acter of the building is Gothic; but the style is greatly modified, and adapted to 
the materials and requirements of the day. Some of the observations in our 
description of the other villa by Mr. Truefitt, would be applicable to the present 
building. With all the simplicity and moderate cost of the structure, every- 
thing, inclusive of the iron-work and gas-fittings, was designed by the architect 
for the special case. 

The main-block of the house, or all that rises above the ground-floor, 
occupies an area of 28 feet by 25 feet. The ground itself has a frontage of 
30 feet, measuring-in half of the party-fence wall; but the breadth is greater 
behind. Some ground is given up to the side-lane, to get square angles. There 
are three storeys, the upper one being partly in the roof. There are two 
day-rooms and four bed-rooms of all kinds. There is no underground storey. 




72 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



Ground Floor. — The arrangement of the front-entrance is well explained 
in Plate LVI. The doorway is sheltered by an open porch, and is screened 
to some extent by the dwarf- wall at the side, behind which plants are set. 
The dining-room opens from the entrance-hall. At the end of the latter are 
the staircase, and a door which shuts off the offices. The kitchen is partly 
in a projection, to the rear, which provides a store-room also, and has a lean-to 
roof. The full width of this projecting piece is occupied by the windows. The 
kitchen is entered from beneath a glass-covered way that leads to a door from 
the house into the back-garden, and to a combined bath-room and "W.C. ; 
whilst opposite the kitchen -door is an entrance from the side -lane. This 
entrance is planned so as to be within sight from the road in front. Behind 
the garden-wall are the places for coals and dust. There is a servants' W.C, 
which is under the stairs, within, but is entered from outside the house. 
Attached to the kitchen are a small scullery and a larder. The latter is raised 
four steps above the floor of the scullery, and has a wine-cellar below it. The 
rooms in this storey are 9 feet 6 inches in the clear height. At the end of the 
house is a conservatory, heated by a gas-stove. 

One -Pair Floor. — Here there are two rooms, namely, the drawing-room, 
and the principal bed-room. The drawing-room has the peculiar arrangement 
of windows shown in Plate LVI., a double-window being placed at the angle 
of the building as well as a window in the main front. This gave a con- 
siderable range of view before the prospect was shut out, partially, by more 
recent buildings. The rooms on the floor are 10 feet in the clear height. 

Attic Storey. — On this floor are three well-lighted bed-rooms, one of 
them small ; and a commodious linen-closet. The rooms on this floor are 
9 feet in the highest part. 

There is a separate flue, adjoining the kitchen smoke-flue, for ventilation, 
with an opening into it from every room in the house, excepting the small 
bed-room. 

The external walls are of brick, 13i, inches in thickness as regards the 
ground and one -pair storeys, and 9 inches above. The bricks generally 
are the ordinary "stocks," or common bricks; but the fronts are faced with 
washed- stocks. Both kinds were close at hand. Some red bricks are used 
in bands, and in the window -arches. What little stone is used is Portland. 



WORCESTER LODGE. 



73 



The internal partitions, excepting one that has the fire-places and flues, are 
of brick, 4^ inches in thickness, set in cement. The partition in upper floor 
is of trussed timber -quartering where spanning the space over the drawing- 
room, and of framed boarding for the inclosure of the little space next the bed- 
room, doors. To prevent rise of damp from the soil, there is a course of 
slate, in the walls, at the ground-level. 

The roof- covering is of countess -slates, laid on deal -boarding one inch in 
thickness, with hips and ridges each formed of slate slabs and rolls, — the 
slabs fths of an inch thick, and the rolls 2| inches thick, — and valley-linings 
of lead weighing 6 lbs. to the foot. Here the architect, viewing the fact that 
snow will accumulate in internal hollows of a roof, has carefully made all his 
gutters external (they are all iron eaves -gutters, with external down-pipes); 
and he argues in favour of this arrangement, for general adoption, from the 
results, — not a drop of water having come through the roof of his house since 
it was built. A separate "lean-to" covers the staircase -portion of the 
building. 

The carpenter's work is of Baltic fir : the joiner's work is of yellow deal, 
varnished, without staining. The window- openings are all fitted with hinged 
casements, in mullioned and transomed solid fir frames. The windows of 
the dining-room and drawing-room are glazed with plate-glass, and the 
other windows with sheet-glass. 

The hearths and skirtings throughout the house are of ornamental tiles, as 
is also the flooring of the hall. All the grates have fire-brick backs; and the 
dining-room and drawing-room fire-places have sides, or "covings," of tiles. 

Each room is papered with one pattern of paper as a dado, 3 feet 6 inches 
in height, with a border of 3 inches to the dado, and with a different pattern 
for the remainder of the height. The principal rooms have cornices with coves 
coloured, but no centre-flowers or other ornament in plaster. 

The total cost of the house, including papei-ing, grates, and gas-fittings, as 
well as the garden -walling and railing, was £705 ; but such has been the 
rise in materials and wages since 1851), that, in the opinion of the architect, 
the cost would now (1867) be nearly a couple of hundred pounds more. 



T 



COTTAGE AT GOV AN, 



RENFREWSHIRE. 

J. T. R O C H E A D, ARCHITECT, GLASGO W. 



PLATES LVII. LVIII. 



HIS House, called Langland's Cottage, is situate near Govan, a 
village on the south-western outskirts of Glasgow. It was erected 
in 1853. The site is level. The aspect is west, or rather to the 
north thereof. In the design and planning, the aim has been 
economy of space in passages, and of external walling, combined with pictur- 
esqueness of effect in a flat but wooded locality. The walls are of varying 
heights, — some portion of the height of the ground-storey, even, is comprised 
within the roofing of the lower level: the bed-room accommodation is divided 
between the ground -floor and a floor that is wholly within the roof ; the 
slopes and gables are steeply inclined; and, as the house can be seen well 
on all sides, the design has been studied for grouping from whatever point of 
view, and the decoration and masonry are finished in the same manner all 
round. The cottage, in point of style, resembles the domestic Tudor-Gothic. 
The chimneys, separately or as seen together, are important features, giving 
piquancy to the whole. The house covers an area — not counting a projection — 
of about 37 feet by 34 feet; out of which a piece is cut, at one corner. The 
accommodation consists of one parlour, a kitchen, four ordinary bed-rooms, and 
a servants' room, besides closets and a bath-room. 

Ground Floor, — The principal entrance, in the western front, is through 
an open and side -lighted porch. A glazed door gives access to the lobby, 
which has also a light from the roof. The door, if desired, might be hung at the 
porch-entrance, and the side-lights of porch glazed. A passage, turning twice 
at right angles, from the lobby, leads to the back-door. From the left-hand 





■WEST ELEVATIOW. 




COTTAGE AT GOVAN. 



75 



side of the lobby are entered a bed-room and the kitchen, and the stairs to the 
upper floor are ascended; whilst on the right-hand side is the parlour, having 
a store-closet, lighted from above, and a smaller closet. The parlour is one of 
those rooms of this floor which are partly within the roof. Closets are attached 
to the bed-room, as also to the kitchen : in the latter case, space under the stairs 
is turned to account as a larder — being lighted and ventilated. Connected with 
the passage to the back-door are the servants' bed-room (shut off), a w.c, and 
a place for coals. The parlour, bed-room, and kitchen, (each having windows 
on two sides,) are 9 feet in the clear height, whilst the remainder of the storey 
has a height of 8 feet ; but as most of the ceilings in the house are partly sloped, 
heights stated must be taken as for the highest portions of rooms only. 

Upper Floor. — Here are two bed-rooms, entered each by four steps from the 
top-landing of the stairs ; whilst a third bed-room is reached through one of the 
two, as also are a lavatory and bath in a room between the second and third bed- 
rooms. Each bed-room has a fire-place. The stair-case is lighted by a triangular 
dormer-window at the landing. The bath-room has a skylight. The heights, 
in the highest part, are 8 feet for the bed-rooms and 7 feet for the bath-room. 

The external walls are built of free-stone from the Giffnock quarries, which 
are distant about three miles by road. The walls are 2 feet in thickness, 
excepting at the back-entrance and servants' room, where they are 18 inches. 
The general facing is in courses, 5 inches in height, pick-faced, the joints 
being carefully pointed with hydraulic-lime mortar. The base-course, coins, 
mullions, transoms, and heads of windows and chimney-stacks, are rubbed 
or polished on the face. The coins, each 10 inches in height, project one 
inch. In the principal chimney-stack, the shaft itself, above the mouldings, 
is in courses of a single stone each, hollowed for the four flues. The fire- 
places and flues are built in stone; but the rest of the work of internal 
partitions is of brick, excepting in the upper floor, where only the central 
partition is of brick (9 inches), the others being of timber-quartering, lathed 
and plastered. The internal brickwork of the ground floor, in partitions, is 
9 inches in thickness, excepting where inclosing the servants' room, closets, 
and coals, where the thickness is 4^ inches. Both in the external and 
internal walls, there is a course of Caithness paving-stone below the splay 
of the base or plinth. Protection from damp that might pass through the 
walls is afforded by the widely-projecting eaves, in addition to the pointing. 



76 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



The lintels, the barge-boards, finials, and pendants, the external doors, 
and the window-sashes and frames, are of American red pine. The general 
carpenter's work is of Quebec yellow-pine, and the joiner's work of St. John 
yellow-pine. The window-sashes have the ordinary arrangement internally; 
that is to say, they are "double hung" in two sashes, — though the external 
appearance is that of double- or triple-light windows; but, in the upper floor, 
the triple-light windows have sliding-sashes to the centre-light only, the 
sashes of the side-lights being fixed. The glazing is of the best crown-glass. 
The windows of the ground floor have shutters. 

The roof is a simple arrangement of common-rafters, of 6 inches by 2 inches 
scantling, or 5 inches by 2 inches, according to the span, and set 18 inches 
from centre to centre. The ceiling-joists of main floor are 8 inches by 2 inches. 
The roof-covering is of full-sized Easdale or West Highland slates, in courses 
straight and escalloped. Each gable, with or without ornamental barge- board, 
is terminated by a moulded coping, ]^ inch thick, under which the edge of 
the slating is carried, and the space between pointed with Portland cement. 
The ridges, and the flashings round chimneys and roof-lights, are covered with 
lead of 5 lbs. to the foot; and the valleys are lined with lead of 6 lbs. The 
eaves-gutters and rain-water down-pipes are of cast-iron; and wherever the 
continuity of the roof is interrupted by gablets, lead-gutters fixed externally at 
a line immediately above the level of the ceiling-joists, and connected with pipes 
passing through the gablets, conduct the rain-water from such disconnected 
parts of the roof to places where there are eaves-gutters and down-pipes. The 
small portions of the roof between the gablets, and below the line of the lead- 
gutters, have dripping-eaves; another portion has a valley-gutter. 



The cost of the house was as here stated : — 

Masonry and Brickwork, £346 13 

Carpentry, Joinery, and Ironmongers work, and Glazing, .... 373 44 

Plumber's work 07 19 11 i 

Slating, 40 

Plastering 28 

Painting (outside work only), .......... 18 

Marble Chimney-piece, ........... 500 

Gasfitting and Belllianging, .......... 10 

£S88 13 4 




BLACSIE iSON, GLASGOW, EDn;B"CEaH &IQKD3N. 



FRIDAY BRIDGE PARSONAGE, 



CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 
EWAN CHRISTIAN, ARCHITECT, LONDON. 



PLATES LIX. LX. 




iRIDAY BRIDGE, where is the parsonage illustrated in these plates, 
is in the Fen Country, near Wisbech, in Cambridgeshire. The 
house was erected in 1861-62. The site of the building is nearly 
a dead flat; and, before the works were commenced, it was sur- 
rounded by large open drains or water-courses— some of which it was necessary 
to fill-in, in order to form a garden. With the circumstances of the site 
were involved peculiar difficulties as to the foundation, the supply of water, and 
the drainage. The principal rooms have an aspect almost due south. There 
was no view or prospect worthy of consideration. Owing to the nature of the 
subsoil, it was necessary to keep the ground-floor-level high; and from the 
same circumstance, a sunk -basement storey was impracticable. The offices 
are therefore arranged in a manner which gives a somewhat extended appear- 
ance to their portion of the plan. 

The decorative character of the building is Gothic, modified somewhat from 
the old domestic style, more especially as to the treatment of the window-heads. 
The comparative plainness of houses of this class results from considerations that 
have been referred to in the description of Goldhanger Rectory. 

The main block of the building covers an area of 50 feet by about 44 feet, 
exclusive of the gabled projection and bay-window in the centre of the south 
front; and it consists of two ordinary storeys, besides attic-rooms which are 
entirely within the roof. The out-buildings, with the stables returned at 
their end, run eastward 60 feet or more. There are, in the house, three 
day-rooms, nine bed-rooms, one dressing-room, as well as extensive offices. 



78 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



The internal arrangements are compact and convenient. The thoroughfares 
are so contrived as to keep the family- and servants'-apartments distinct from 
one another. 

Gkound Floor, — The floor-line of the main-block is 2 feet 3 inches above 
the original level of ground ; and a grass-terrace is formed on three sides. 
The principal entrance is in the west-front, through a recessed porch having 
a pointed arch as the opening to it. The door, placed on the right within 
the porch, gives access to a corridor that is lighted at the end, or from the 
front, and which leads to the staircase-hall. This last is in the centre of the 
block, and is lighted from the top. In the corridor are the doors of the study 
and of a store-room. The study has windows on two sides, and, being close to 
the entrance, and to a certain extent disconnected from the family-part of the 
house, is well adapted for a business-room. The store-room is lighted partly 
from the porch, and partly from the scullery. In the hall are the doors of the 
drawing-room and dining-room, and a cloth-covered door shutting off the offices. 
The drawing-room is lighted by a large bay-window, at its end, in the south 
front. The dining-room is lighted from the south and east; and in this room is a 
serving-door, and hatchway, at the end of the office-passage, and within short 
distance of the kitchen. The kitchen and scullery are to the north-west of the 
office-passage, and next to a large inclosed court-yard, into which there is a way 
out from the scullery. There is also a back-entrance from the court, into the 
office-passage; which passage is lighted by a fan-light over the door. The cook's 
pantry is close to this door. In the kitchen are a closet, next the fire-place, and 
a dresser with drawers and shelves. The store-closet and the different pantries 
are fitted with shelves in the usual manner, as indicated in the ground-plan. 
The scullery is furnished with sink and copper, and with a baking-oven of brick- 
work. The scullery-window in the principal front has its sill raised above the 
level of sills of the windows of the living-rooms; so that the interior of the 
scullery does not come disagreeably into view from the exterior; whilst outlook 
is not altogether interfered with. 

The court-yard serves conveniently for both kitchen-department and stables, 
without division. It is entered by large gates from the west, or principal, 
front, and also at the opposite end by a door close to the gig-house, and from 
the garden by a passage near to the stable. 

In the office-passage, and close to the dining-room hatch, is a china-pantry, 



FRIDAY BRIDGE PARSONAGE. 



7!) 



with an attached closet under the back-stairs. There are two steps down to the 
kitchen-door; and beyond this there is a transverse passage, out of which the 
back-stairs ascend, and in which is the door of the wine-closet. The latter pas- 
sage continues, with descent of two or three steps, to a beer-cellar and a larder, 
getting light close to its end, from the south, just beyond the main block of the 
building. The position of the larder, at the end of the line, allows of a through- 
current of air; for which, in addition to the window northward, four apertures, 
with air-bricks, are provided to the south. Beyond this portion of the offices 
are the outbuildings, including the coal-shed, the ash-pit and the servants' w.c, 
and the garden w.c. The latter conveniences have their entrances carefully shut 
off, whilst made accessible from opposite sides of the house. 

The stable is for two horses. Attached to it is a small harness-room, with 
fire-place, and with a borrowed light from a lobby; and then, at the north, is 
the gig-house. East of the stable-block is a piggery; and there is also a dung- 
pit, with a shoot into it directly from the stable. The stalls of the stable are 
formed with cast-iron heel-posts, and top-and-bottom rails with boarding filled- 
in between; and each has a cast-iron rack and an enamelled manger. The walls 
of the harness-room are boarded to a height of 6 feet. 

The kitchen-and-stable court is fenced in along the north, with oak -posts 
and rails, and split-pales of larch. The gates are framed, ledged, and braced 
of oak, covered with narrow deal-boards. 

The principal rooms of the ground storey of the main block, are in height 
10 ft. 6 inches; whilst the kitchen and scullery are 11 ft. 

Chamber Floor. — Here there are four principal bed-rooms, (to one of which 
a dressing-room is attached,) and one small bed-room — these being reached from 
the wide landing of the principal staircase. There are two other bed-rooms on 
a lower level of floor, at the top of the back-stairs. These stairs are very well 
lighted by windows in two storeys. Only one bed-room in the house is without 
a fire-place; but the dressing-room has none. A w.c, which is the only one 
in-doors, is placed in the passage leading to the back-stairs. This passage is 
lighted from the principal staircase by an arched opening. The principal rooms 
on the floor are 10 feet in the clear height, excepting one (over the entrance- 
porch) which is 9 feet 6 inches; whilst the two secondary bed-rooms are 9 feet in 
height. 



80 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



Attics. — These are reached, not by the back-stairs, but from the landing of 
the principal staircase. There are two bed-rooms, each lighted by a window in 
a gable; and there are three ways into the roof, whereby, in addition to the access 
to the cistern, space is gained for lumber. The arrangement of the top-light of 
the staircase appears in the section, and in two of the elevations. The attic 
bed-rooms are in height 9 feet 6 inches in the highest part. 

The external walls, and the chief internal-partitions, are of brickwork, built 
in old English bond. The general facing is of picked white bricks, from Whittle- 
sea, coursed with bands of red brick, and having voussoirs of white and red 
bricks, alternately in the arches of doorways and the window-heads. The window- 
sills are of hard moulded bricks, set edgewise, in cement, with a double row of 
tiles beneath them, projecting beyond the face of the walls to protect the latter 
from the wet. The plinth is of " quarter-round " moulded bricks ; and the eaves 
and the verges of gables are formed of projecting courses of moulded bricks set 
on edge, aud anglewise, on a "stretching-course." The chimney-shafts, which 
have angular projections, have heads formed of projecting courses of bricks and 
tiles; and each flue is terminated by a length of stoneware-pipe, of 11 inches 
diameter, standing 6 inches above the brickwork. 

To guard against settlements from %he nature of the subsoil, great precau- 
tions were taken in the foundations. The footings were formed of very hard 
bricks laid in cement, and having a wide spread at the base; each course of them 
was carefully bonded with rows of hoop-iron, laid along the walls, about 2| inches 
apart; and the internal walls were united to the outer ones by crossing the iron 
bond. The efficiency of these precautions came to be tested. Two of the ditches 
that were filled-in ran parallel with the north and south fronts of the house, 
within a few feet of the walls. When the southern ditch was filled, the house 
leaned over, bodily, southwards, so much that it is now 4 inches out of the per- 
pendicular; whilst there has been no crack or flaw in the walls. 

The provision to prevent rise of damp in the walls consists of a course of 
asphalte, 1 inch thick, over the whole of them, internal and external, laid just 
above the level of the finished ground-line. For ventilation under the wooden 
floors, the provision, besides that of the common air-bricks in external walls, 
consists of honeycombed arrangement of the work of the sleeper-walls under the 
ground-floor. 



FRIDAY BRIDGE PARSONAGE. 81 

Baltic timber is used for the carpenter's work generally, yellow deal for 
external joiner's work, and white deal generally for the interior; whilst the 
panels and mouldings of the doors are of yellow pine. The floors are, with one 
or two exceptions, laid with 1^-inch battens. They are single-joisted and 
herring-bone strutted. The internal partitions, not of brickwork, including the 
upright sides of attic-rooms, are of timber-quartering, trussed where requisite. 
Lintels to openings are, as usual, 1 inch in thickness for each foot of their span. 
The wall over the bay is carried by a bressummer, 12 inches square, having a 
bearing of 12 inches at each end, on stone templates, and formed, in the usual 
manner, of two sawn-and-reversed pieces and a central flitch of 4-inch rolled 
iron, the whole bolted together. 

The windows of the attics, the w.o. in the chamber-storey, and the offices, 
have casements and solid frames; the others have sashes, double-hung in deal- 
cased frames, with oak sills. The windows of the day-rooms are glazed with 
"patent" plate-glass, of 21 oz. to the foot; and the others have "extra-stout" 
sheet-glass. The frames of the larder, pantry, and store-room windows are 
covered with perforated zinc, to exclude flies. There are shutters to the windows 
of the principal rooms, the corridor, and the kitchen; the other ground-floor 
windows have iron guard-bars. The arrangement of the roof of the main-block 
is indicated by dotted lines on the plan of the attics; and its simple arrange- 
ment of timbers will be sufficiently clear from the section. The roof is hipped 
at each angle of the building, and has ridges parallel with each front, including 
a central ridge, somewhat higher than the others, and running north and south 
from one gable to another. The water of the internal slopes, which are less 
steep than the outer ones, flows to two "hopper" gutters, lead-lined; and is 
thence conducted to the cistern. A trap-door in the roof gives access to these 
gutters. 

The roof is covered with Portmadoc (Welsh) slates, "Countess" size, 
fastened with copper nails to yellow-deal battens, and pointed inside. The 
ridges are covered with red ridge-tiles, alternately plain and crested. Hips, 
valleys, and flashings, are formed with lead. The verges of the gables are 
finished with cement. 

This may be the proper place to mention provisions for water-supply and 

drainage. The rain-water is conducted by glazed-stoneware pipes, of 4 inches 

diameter, to filtering-receivers, through which it passes into a tank, capable of 

x 



82 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



containing 5000 gallons, and constructed in compartments. Into the same 
receptacle is conducted water from the roof of the church; and upon the con- 
tents of it the house is dependent for the supply for culinary purposes and 
drinking. The arrangement was not that originally intended. On commence- 
ment of the building, a well was sunk, which for some time yielded good water: 
but soon after the bursting of the Middle Level Sewer-outlet, when the Fen 
Country was inundated, the water became brackish; and, though many methods 
of sweetening it were tried, it remained undrinkable. No complaints of the 
present supply appear to have been made. The water of the well, however, 
serves for some purposes. The water is drawn from the tank by a strong force- 
pump fixed in the scullery, and forced to a lead-lined cistern, holding 300 
gallons, which is placed over the w.c. of the principal chamber-storey, and 
is accessible from the inside of the roof. To the same cistern, part of the 
rain-water from the roofs is conducted direct. From the cistern the water is 
laid on to the scullery-sink and the several w.c.'s. The stable has an inde- 
pendent supply. The outfall for the house-sewage is necessarily into a cess- 
pool; which is placed at some twenty yards' distance from the house. This 
receptacle is water-tight, and has an overflow into a ditch that is north of the 
site. The drains are of stoneware-piping. 

The cost of the house was as follows: — 

£1589 o o 

25 

53 (I 

253 



Amount of Contract, . . 




Extras, ......... 




Tank and filters, . . . . 




Eoad-making, Gates, Fencing, and filling-in Ditches, 






Total, 



£1020 I) 



This includes grates, chimney-pieces, paperhanging, painting, and all fittings 
to make the house complete for habitation ; and it must not be forgotten, in 
the comparison with other examples, that the sum also includes stabling. 



COTTAGE AT ROSENEATH, 



DUMBARTONSHIRE. 

JOHN BAIBD, ARCHITECT, GLASGOW. 



PLATE LXI. 



HIS Plate represents a cottage erected in 1863. near to the village 
of Roseneatli, for the residence of the parish-schoolmaster. The 
locality, on the western side of Gareloch, is finely wooded and 
sheltered. The principal front of the building looks south. The 
main block occupies an area of about 36 feet square. There are two small 
additions on the ground-floor level, containing, one, the front-, and the other 
the back-entrance. The door of the principal entrance is in two leaves; and 
each half folds back into a recess, to expose an inner door, which is glazed. 
There are two storeys to the main block, the upper one entirely within the 
roof. The additions are of one storey. There are two day-rooms, four or five 
bed-rooms, and a sufficiency of offices and closets. 

Ground Floor. — The principal entrance, facing the same way as the front, 
is at the west. With the outer door open, as above described, the arrangement 
would be that of an outer and an inner porch. The latter is side-lighted; and 
attached to it is a w.c, in a quadrant-shaped addition. Turning to the right, 
a lobby leads from the porch to the foot of the stairs to the attic-floor. In 
this lobby are the doors of the parlour and one bed-room: whilst at the end, 
near the foot of the stairs, are the doors of the dining-room and the kitchen. 
To each of the day-rooms there is a closet attached; and there is one under 
the top-flight of stairs. Attached to the kitchen is a servant's bed-closet. 
The back-entrance to the house has a lobby, in which are the kitchen-door, 
and doors to a wash-house and a pantry; both which last-named offices are 
in the eastern addition to the main block. The height of the rooms on this 




84 VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 

floor is 10 feet 6 inches in the clear, with the exception of the servant's bed- 
closet, which is under the landing between the two flights of stairs. 

Attkj Floor. — There are three bed-rooms here, and a small closet. Each 
bed -room has a fire-place. The height of the rooms in the highest part is 
7 feet 9 inches. 

The external walls are constructed of whin-stone rubble, with free-stone 
dressings. The stone of the first-named kind is from a quarry in the neighbour- 
hood; the other is from Dumbarton, ten miles distant, the carriage being by 
water. The rubble is simply pointed with hydraulic lime: the dressings are 
tooled. The window-heads and sills are each of a single stone, excepting in 
the case of the four-light window. The base or plinth projects 3 inches. The 
internal partitions are of wooden quartering, lathed and plastered. The roofs 
and flooring are of ordinary construction. The windows are fitted with sashes, 
but have no shutters. The material used in the carpenter's woik is red pine, 
and in the joiner's work yellow pine. The sashes are glazed with sheet-glass. 

The roof-covering is of full-sized West Highland slates, laid on boarding. 
The water from the roof flows to eaves-gutters, which are formed each behind 
a fascia-board, spiked to the ends of rafters; and is then conducted downwards 
by pipes. The projections at the gables, and at the ends of lean-tos, are carried 
by short lengths of rafter, whilst a wooden coping covers the ends of the slates, 
and repeats the lines of the eaves. The gutters are lined with lead. The 
ridge-covering, valley-linings, and flashings are of zinc. The chimney-caps are 
of terra-cotta. 

The cost of the house was as here stated : — 

Mason's work, 

Carpenter's and Joiner's work, and Glazing, 

Slater's work, ..... 
Plasterer's „ . ■ . 

Plumber's 

Bells and Bell-banging 

Painting external wood-work, tbree coats, 
Chimney-caps, ...... 

£554 8 8 



21!) 16 5 

30 S 

32 8 8 

30 18 2 

3 

8 10 

8 



E ARM-HOUSE AT BLTTBBERHOTTSES, 



NEAR HARROGATE, YORKSHIRE. 
E. B. LAMB, ARCHITECT, LONDON. 



PLATE LX1I. 



LUBBERHOUSE HALL is the name of the building illustrated 
in this plate. It is situate in the township of Blubberhouses, 
about six miles east of Bolton, in Yorkshire, and eight miles west 
of Harrogate. It was erected about the year 1856. The neigh- 
bourhood is hilly and very picturesque. There is a considerable slope from 
the entrance-front, which faces south, down to the main road. The plan is 
specially devised for the requirements of a farm-house in the locality. There 
are separate staircases to the men's and women's dormitories; and the kitchen 
is large, since the custom of that part of the country is for the family and 
domestics to take their meals together in the kitchen. The decorative character 
of the house is that of the late Tudor style of architecture. The ground covered 
is about 43 feet by 31 feet, for the main block; with a projection, at one end, 
of 19 feet by about 10 feet; and other projections, including one of 2 feet 
6 inches, where the porch is. There are two storeys besides the attic-storey, 
which last is entirely within the roof. There are two sitting-rooms, as well as 
the kitchen, and six bed-rooms, besides the men's and women's dormitories. 

Ground Floor. — There are two entrances to the house, from opposite sides; 

the back-entrance having close to it the stairs leading up to the men's dormitory, 

and being near to the kitchen-door. The principal entrance is through an open 

porch, where the door gives access to a passage, at the end of which is the 

principal staircase, which goes up to the women's dormitory — serving, besides, 

for the principal chamber-storey. Under the principal stairs is a w.o.; and a 

similar convenience, shown on the plan of the chamber-floor, is attached to a 

y 



86 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



landing, placed four steps below the latter floor. A transverse passage connects 
the staircases, as well as the front entrance-passage with that of the back: the 
door of the principal sitting-room, at one end, faces the door of the kitchen 
at the other; and in this passage is the door of the second sitting-room. 
Attached to the kitchen is a scullery, having a fire-place. The kitchen is 
lighted by a central triplet and two side-lights. These are in a projecting bay; 
at the sides of which, externally, the projection of the gable of the storey above 
is carried on corbels. The principal sitting-room has also a bay-window. 

Chamber Floor and Attics. — Four of the bed-rooms have fire-places; 
and there is a fire-place to each of the dormitories. One of the two other 
bed-rooms, of small size, is partly within the roof of the porch. Each of the 
two principal storeys is 9 feet in the clear height, from floor to ceiling. 

The external walls are built of a coarse grit-stone, hard and durable, from 
adjoining quarries. The work is irregularly coursed and bonded; the stones 
of the quoins and discharging-arch.es differing from the others only in dimen- 
sions, and in being roughly tooled; whilst the rest of the work is hammer- 
dressed or scabbled. The partitions are of brick, excepting those of the attic- 
floor, which are of wooden quartering, lathed and plastered. The roof (of 
which the arrangement is indicated by dotted lines on the Plan of Attics) 
is covered with thin slabs of stone, as usual in the neighbourhood ; the breadths 
of the courses diminishing from the eaves to the apex of the roof. The 
water from the roof drops from the eaves. A course of slate in the walls 
prevents rise of damp. 

Water is laid on, to the top of the house, from a spring, in a hill, opposite, 
distant about three-quarters of a mile; and the water is constantly running 
to the cisterns and through the drains. 

The glazing is in diamond-shaped quarries, in lead, in casements. 

The stone being on the spot, and the carting of materials being done by the 
farmer, a statement of cost would scarcely serve for guidance in other works. 



YILLA ON SYDENHAM HILL, 



NEAR LONDON. 

BANKS <fe BARRY, ARCHITECTS, LONDON. 



PLATES LXIII.-LXV. 



UR Plates here represent a larger and more costly building than any 
other illustrated in this Work. The villa, called Fairwood, is the 
residence of Mr. D. H. Stone, an alderman of the city of London. 
It is situate on Sydenham Hill, about a mile, to the north-east, 
from the Crystal Palace, and from the house shown in Plates LIII. LIV. 
The crest of the hill, for the whole distance, is occupied by villas, of which 
the majority possess considerable architectural character, combined with the 
advantage of the fine view north-westwards over London. In the present case, 
as in that of the other house referred to, the Dulwich Wood lies beneath; but 
more of eastern London is seen, St. Paul's Cathedral coming well into view 
from the garden-front. 

The building was erected in 1863, and is of the precise character of the 
Elizabethan style of architecture. 

The design was made, as in the other case, specially for the site. The 
hill-side, however, is still more steep than where the house of Mr. Banks 
is situate; whilst, as there is here no road in the rear, the west front of this 
house is seen only from the garden, and from roads at a considerable distance. 

Exclusive of the stable- and coach-house, and of the conservatory, the plan 
cover's an area of nearly-square form, which may be stated as about 50 feet depth 
by 46 feet frontage, measuring- in projections. Including the basement, which, 
on the garden-side, is entirely above ground, there are three principal storeys, 
besides a storey wholly within the roof, and a " tower-room." There are three 



88 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



day-rooms, or reception-rooms, ample offices, three principal bed-rooms, each of 
which has a dressing-room attached, and four or five other bed-rooms, besides 
a bath-room and a linen-room. There is no separate servants '-staircase. Two 
of the bed-rooms have very large bay-windows, above similar windows to the 
rooms below. The north-east angle of the building has the form of a square 
tower, carried up one storey higher than the rest of the structure. It is 
terminated by gables of the Elizabethan character on the four sides, and 
by a high truncated roof. 

Ground Floor. — The front-entrance to the house, from the east, leads into 
a hall which forms the base of the tower, and is lighted by a fan-light over 
the door. Close to this entrance, and between the main building and the 
stable, is a door at the top of steps which lead down to the basement- 
entrance. From the entrance-hall a side-lighted vestibule is reached; attached 
to which is a w.o. Turning to the left, the staircase-hall is entered. It is 
nearly square, occupies a central position, and is lighted from a "lantern" 
at the top (as shown in one of the sections, Plate LXV.), as well as from the 
vestibule. From this hall open the doors of the drawing-room, library, and 
dining-room, and of a dinner service-room; which last is close to the top 
of stairs from the basement. There being a door into the dining-room from 
the service-room, dishes are carried that way; whilst the service-room itself 
has all requisite fittings. The conservatory is connected with the dining- 
room by a glazed porch, as well as with the drawing-room; so that the whole 
may be made to form one suite. From the porch between the dining-room 
and conservatory, there is a descent to the garden. The stated dimensions of 
the drawing-room and the library are much increased by the bow-windows. 
From the form of these windows the full advantage of the site is derived, 
in the matter of prospect. The disposition of the rooms and passages pre- 
vents draughts. The height of rooms on the ground-floor is 12 feet. 

The stable has two stalls and a loose-box. Opening from the stable is 
the harness-room; at the end of the stable is a coach-house; and over the 
whole is a loft for hay. The stable-yard is fenced off from the ground in 
front of the house. The line of division takes the quadrant-form on plan; 
whereby considerable additional frontage is given to the garden -inclosure, 
which is of ornamental character; and space is obtained for a second gate, 
allowing a carriage to pass in and out when required. 



VILLA ON SYDENHAM HILL. 



89 



Basement. — Here are a kitchen and a scullery, connected by a passage, and 
having their windows wholly above-ground: there are also a small larder, a 
place for stores; a butler's-pantry, lighted from a small sunk-area, with a 
plate-room and presses; wine- beer- and coal-cellars; and a w.o. The walls 
not above ground are protected from damp, by dry areas, as shown in the plan 
and in one of the sections. The stairs, with the space next the external 
entrance to the basement, are well lighted from the end of the building. 
The rooms of this storey are 10 feet 6 inches in the clear height. Beneath 
the conservatory are the furnace, the place of deposit for garden-tools, and 
the coal-hole for the conservatory. In the basement of the stable-building are 
spaces for manure, and stores ; and there is another w.c. 

Principal Chamber Floor. — No detailed description of the bed-rooms and 
dressing-rooms on this floor is necessary; but attention may be directed to the 
plan. There, will be noticed the convenient disposition of the bath-room, w.c. 
and stairs to attics ; also the completeness of the lighting and heating arrange- 
ments to the three dressing-rooms, as well as to the bed-rooms of this floor and 
that above; and the arrangement of one of the bed-room suites, with lobby of 
entrance, and a closet, for clothes, attached. The storey is 10 feet 8 inches in 
the clear height. 

Attic Storey. — The three larger bed-rooms and one small one, and the 
linen-room, are reached by a passage that runs partly round the square space 
occupied by the "flat"-and-"lantern" over the staircase. To this space there is 
a way from the passage, to allow of cleansing of glass and removal of snow. 
The attic bed-rooms are 8 feet in the highest part. The "tower-room'' has its 
floor at a somewhat different level. 

The materials used in the house, and the manner of construction, are 
precisely similar to what have been described in the case of the villa which 
is the subject of Plates LIII. LIV., with these exceptions, that arches with 
Staffordshire blue-bricks are not used in the main -building, and that the 
roof-covering has not quite the same character decoratively. It is important, 
however, to notice that there is much more mason's work in the house now 
before us, than in the other. 

The rain-water is conducted from the central space by trough-guttering, 

through the roofs, to the main -gutters ; which are behind parapets on the 

z 



Ill) 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



external walls. Thence the water descends, externally, by pipes; which there 
are in the greater number of the re-entering angles of the fronts. These pipes 
are painted red, to accord with the brickwork, and have been omitted in our 
elevations. 

The cost of the house was as follows : — 

Amount of Contract (which was for the whole of the work, including plain 



painting, but exclusive of what is undermentioned), ..... £5337 14 G 

Gas-piping and Brackets, ........... 61 13 10 

Decorative Painting, . 91 4 1 

Marble Chimney-pieces (other Chimney-pieces being included in the contract), . 87 

Stoves, Kitchen-range, and Bath, . . . . . 1 97 1 1 9 



Total for House, Stabling, and Conservatory, ..... £5775 4 2 



Fencing the grounds formed an item of £68, 9*. 6d. additional. 

The great cost of this building, compared with other examples illustrated 
in this Work, is due, in part, to the increased number of decorative features, 
but more especially to the large excess of London prices over those prevailing 
in the country. 



HOLMWOOD, 



CATHCART, RENFREWSHIRE. 
A. &c G. THOMSON, ARCHITECTS, GLASGOW. 



PLATES LXVI.-LXXII. 



N these Plates we illustrate, with some minuteness, a house that is 
remarkable for the amount of study manifested in its details and 
in the grouping of features of its exterior. In decorative character, 
and in some of its structural arrangements, it resembles the double 
villa at Langside, designed by the same architects, and which is illustrated in 
Plates XXXIX — XLI. To the description of that work the reader may refer 
for information as to some of those details wherein resemblance is obvious, 
repetition here being unnecessary. 

The house called Holmwood was erected in 1857-58. It stands on an 
elevated site, at a bend of the river Cart, about three miles south of Glasgow. 
The principal front faces the north-east, the direction being governed by 
neighbouring roads and the formation of the ground. The banks of the river 
at this point are steep and rocky, and covered with a luxuriant growth 
of underwood and large trees. 

Looking from the front of the house towards the river, the tops of the 
more lofty trees lining the Cart appear above the bank just beyond the 
lawn and flower-garden, the whole forming a rich foreground to the land- 
scape, in which the old ivy-covered castle of Cathcart, rising above a clump 
of trees on the opposite bank, is a prominent object among the wooded heights 
and grassy slopes, that extend on each side, and almost encircle the site. 
Towards the north-west the windows of the house command the view of a long 
reach of cultivated undulating country, taking in the western suburbs of 



92 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



Glasgow, with other more distant towns and villages, and bounded in the 
extreme distance by the Western Highlands. 

The style of the architecture is an adaptation of the Greek. Country 
houses in this style usually consist of one cubical mass, with sometimes a wing 
on each side. In the present case the building is picturesquely treated, and is 
composed of several masses, varying in size and character, each part designed to 
express externally its purpose in the general plan. The aim, in the design, may 
be said to be exemplified in the following elements of the composition: — first, 
the dining-room distinguished by largeness of proportion, loftiness, and sim- 
plicity; second, the parlour, the usual sitting-room, provided with a large pro- 
jecting circular window, commanding a comprehensive view, and serving, by 
its form and the elegance and richness of its details, as a fitting spot in which 
to establish the ladies' work-table ; third, the drawing-room, in the upper floor, 
rendered equally unmistakable by the extent and arrangement of its multiple 
window; and, fourth, the circular lantern over the principal staircase, which is 
the central feature of the design, and repeats the form of the parlour-window. 
The wall inclosing the kitchen-garden has been brought into the general com- 
position, with the view of combining the stable-buildings with the house; whilst 
the outer boundary- wall and the gates have also been studied with the object 
of enhancing the general effect. The predominant horizontality, in the lines, 
gives the effect of extent to the whole. 

The relative positions of the buildings are shown in the miniature block- 
plan (Plate LXVIIL), and in the front elevation on the same sheet; whilst the 
gates and outer boundary appear in the view (Plate LXVI.) 

The house covers a large area ; which is of irregular form : but only a small 
portion of this space has other than one-storeyed building upon it. The length 
of the front-range of building may be stated as about 70 feet; whilst the offices 
extend back from the front about 95 feet. The more lofty portion of the house 
is of two storeys : there is no underground-basement. There are three day- 
rooms, or reception-rooms, and seven bed-rooms, in which are included two 
dressing-rooms that might have beds in them. Some of the bed-rooms are in 
the ground-floor. The house was designed for a small family ; but its plan pro- 
vides a more than ample amount of convenience. 

Ground Floor. — The main-entrance to the house is very nearly in the 
middle of the front; but only in the accessories of the entrance has the front that 



HOLMWOOD. 



93 



characteristic which has been called the symmetry of corresponding halves. A 
recessed porch, with an outer door that can be folded back into recesses in the 
day-time, is reached from an external landing at the top of a flight of steps; 
and from this a glazed door gives access to the hall, or rather to a small 
vestibule attached. On the left of the vestibule is a retiring-room, furnished 
with a wash-hand basin having a supply of hot and cold water, and with a 
looking-glass, a sofa, and clothes-pegs. Attached to this room is a w.c.,. 
under the lower flight of the principal stairs: it is lighted from the vestibule, 
which is itself lighted through the entrance-door; and the ventilation is 
by means of a flue carried up in the wall, to near the base of the circular 
lantern, where the outlet is concealed. Just within the house, the line of 
entrance turns to the right; and, opposite the retiring-room, it enters the side 
of a hall or corridor, near to one end, where there is a window to light the length 
of the corridor, corresponding with the window on the other side of the porch. 
The hall has a fire-place, and a recess for a -hat-stand. At the further end, 
or opposite the window, is the way to the kitchen-department; the lobby of 
which is shut off by a door. The dining-room is to the right, entered by a 
door near to the end of the hall; opposite which is an opening leading into 
the staircase-hall. The several openings and recesses of the hall, as will be 
seen by the plan, are disposed symmetrically. Connected with the staircase- 
hall are the doors of the parlour, a small store-closet, and a lobby that 
forms the access to a suite of bed-rooms. The staircase -hall is lighted from 
the top by the circular lantern referred to in our particulars of the external 
character of the house. This lantern is made highly decorative, internally, by 
chimeras, and rich ornamentation of the fascia? and mouldings. The details 
here, as well as those of the principal rooms, are precisely shown in the plates, 
— wanting, however, the colour, — which, in this house, plays an important part 
in the internal effect. The stairs are divided into short flights. The railing- 
is of mahogany, carved into a scroll-pattern, wherein the Grecian character 
of the other details is maintained. 

The dining-room, 16 feet in height, has a three-light window at one end, 
occupving almost the entire width of the room: the fire-place is disposed 
in the same wall as the door, so as to be out of the draught; and at 
the end of the room opposite the window are a recess for the side-board, and 

a serving-way from the butler's-pantry. The arrangement of the pantry 

2 A 



94 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



presents unusual facilities for service. The pantry has communication, by a 
hot-closet, directly with the kitchen, and by lifting-sashes directly with the 
scullery. Dishes for the table are passed at once through the former: plates 
and dishes from the table are re-passed to the scullery, through the latter. The 
parlour, 11 feet 3 inches in height, and nearly square in form in the main portion 
of its plan, has its available area largely increased by the circular projecting- 
window, which is 10 feet 8 inches in diameter. Opening from the parlour is 
a store-closet, fitted with a dresser, drawers, and shelves, and lighted by a 
window in the end of the house. 

All the joiner's work in these two rooms, in the drawing-room which is 
in the floor above, and throughout the house, is of yellow pine, varnished ; and 
in the dining-room and the drawing-room, the doors, with other fittings, are 
enriched with fret-ornaments cut in mahogany and fastened on. The dining- 
room fireplace has a massive mantle-piece in black marble, enriched with gilded 
incised ornament. The side-board, in the same room, is of white marble, with 
enrichments incised and gilt ; and the back and ends of the recess have mirrors 
in mahogany framing, decorated with rosewood frets. The glass of the mirrors 
has a surface-enrichment of gilded ornaments. The sideboard and its acces- 
sories are fully lighted from a glazed opening in the roof, placed at such 
height as not to be seen from the room. The upper portion of the walls of 
this room is decorated with a continuous series of subjects selected from 
Flaxman's illustrations of the Iliad, the figures being about 2 feet 6 inches 
in height, sharply defined in outline, and coloured brown on a blue ground. 

It will be observed that the stone piers or columns in front of the 
dining-room and drawing-room windows, and also those round the circular 
window of the parlour, stand quite clear of the wooden framing of the 
glazed sashes. 

The bed-room suite, on this floor, referred to as entered through a sub-lobby 
opposite the parlour-door, consists of two principal rooms, to one of which 
a dressing-closet is attached, and of an intermediate room that might be used 
as a dressing-room to either, or as an additional bed-room. 

By the plans, as well as other drawings, it will be seen that the 
dining-room, the hall and vestibule, and the retiring-room, are the portions 
of the main building that are but one storey in height, but that the height 




HOLMWOOD. 95 

of the dining-room block admits of an entresole comprising a linen-closet 
and a servant's bed-room with closet attached (this entresole being over the 
butler's -pantry and the scullery), and that there is a wine-cellar below 
ground in the same portion of the plan. 

In the department of the kitchen and offices, the entrance-lobby from the 
chief portion of the house has leading out from it a china-closet, the butler's- 
pantry before mentioned, stairs (top-lighted) which give access to the entresole 
above, and to the wine-cellar below, and a passage, in which last are the doors 
of the kitchen, laundry, and cook's -pantry, and which leads towards the back- 
entrance of the house. The passage is lighted by a window at the farther end. 
The actual exit from the passage, into open air, is into a kitchen -court; 
from which there are two ways: one of them leads through the inclosed 
kitchen-garden, out by a door and steps, to the front of the house; whilst the 
other leads to the bleaching-green behind the house. Surrounding the kitchen- 
court, and covered by lean -to roofs, are several accessories of the house, 
including a wash-house, places for coals and roots, and a larder. 

The kitchen is a distinct feature of the design, so far as having a separate 
roof, and reduced height. It is lighted by a window of five divisions, occupy- 
ing nearly the entire length of one of its sides, where the dresser is placed. 

The heights of the different rooms on the ground-floor vary considerably. 
The dining-room is 16 feet from floor-line to ceiling, as already stated; and the 
parlour, bed-rooms, and hall are each 11 feet 3 inches; the kitchen is 11 feet; 
and the butler's-pantry 9 feet. 

Upper Floor. — On this floor is the drawing-room. The other rooms 
are two bed-rooms, a dressing-room or bed-room, and a bath-room containing 
a w.c. The drawing-room, which is 12 feet 6 inches in height in the highest 
part, occupies the space over the square portion of the parlour, together with 
that over its entrance and over the two closets. The space over the circular 
window becomes a balcony. The room is lighted by a group of windows which 
entirely occupy its end, there being five lights towards the front and one on each 
side. The interior of the room is highly decorated. (See the sections and 
the detailed portion of the wall in Plates LXXI. LXXII.) An enriched 
skirting, or dado, 26 inches in height, in wood, is carried round three sides 
of the room: between the window-lights, also at the sides of the doors and 
fire-place, and at intervals round the room, are placed square colonettes. 



96 VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 

surmounted by a frieze, all of yellow-pine varnished, enriched with anthe- 
mions in mahogany. Six of the spaces between the colonettes are further 
enriched by painted and gilt ornamentation; and the pannels thus formed 
are filled with paintings by H. Cameron, a.r.s.a., illustrating Tennyson's 
Idyls of the King. The centres of the sides are occupied, in one case, by 
the fire-place, which has a white marble mantel-piece having gilt incised 
ornament, and a mirror over it, and in the other case by the piano, over 
which is a mirror; whilst at the end opposite the window, is another large 
mirror, with a decorated marble-slab in front supported by chimeras. The 
bed-rooms and bath-room are separated from the staircase by the arrangement 
of a recess with lobby. The clear heights of the rooms on this floor are, for the 
drawing-room 12 feet 6 inches, as mentioned, and for the principal bed-rooms 
11 feet 3 inches. The servants' bed-room in the entresole is 7 feet in height. 

The material of all external walls is free-stone, from Giffnock quarries, 
distant about a mile. It is set as irregularly coursed rubble, hammer-dressed 
on the face; and the joints are pointed with cement, line-drawn, and finally 
painted with white lead. The dressings are tooled: rubbed or polished work 
has been avoided throughout. A course of Caithness paving-stone is built 
into the walls to prevent the rise of damp. There is a considerable amount 
of decoration in capitals to columns and piers, and in incised lines and 
ornaments : it is well shown in the double-Plate LXIX. LXX. The external 
walls of the main building are 2 feet in thickness. Internal partition-walls, 
where of stone, are also 2 feet ; but the partitions of ordinary character, between 
rooms, are of brick, excepting in the upper floor, where unsupported below, 
and where they are of timber-quartering trussed as requisite, and lathed. For 
inner lintels over openings, and for all outside-woodwork, Quebec red-pine is 
used. The rest of the carpenter's work is of American yellow-pine. The flooring- 
battens and the other joiner's work are of St. John yellow-pine. The bressummer 
carrying the wall over the opening between the parlour and its circular window 
is of cast-iron. 

The framing and covering of the roof, including the eaves and gutters, 
are similar in materials and construction to those of the double villa at 
Langside already referred to; though the present plates show the eaves and 
gables somewhat more clearly. The peculiarity of formation of the chimney- 
cap, shown at the corner of Plate LXIX. LXX., meant to assist the draught, as 



HOLMWOOD. 



97 



well as for decorative effect, should be noted. The description of the Langside 
Villa, besides serving for particulars of the roofing, may also serve for those 
of the arrangement of the window-sashes (pp. 48, 49). The interior decoration 
of Holmwood is fully illustrated in Plates LXXI. LXXII. 



The cost of this house was as follows : — 



Masonry and Brickwork 

Carpentry and Joinery, .... 
Slater's work, ..... 
Plasterer's ,, (including much ornament), 
Plumber's ,, . 

Glazier's „.....■ 

Chimney-caps 

Marble Chimney-pieces (ten in number), and 
Encaustic Tiles for Vestibule and Hall. . 
Ironmongery and Bell-banging, 



Marble Sideboard, 



£976 10 
722 16 
72 11 
202 1 
255 11 
83 10 
22 
153 16 
51 10 
67 16 



£2608 4 11 



Stable, Coachman's House, &c. As shown in the general elevation and 
block-plan, this building is connected with the house by a screen-wall of the 
same kind of masonry as the rest, and thus forms an essential part of the 
grouping of the main front. The stable-court is entered by carriage-gates from 
the principal front, and in the rear there are a green-house, cow-house, and 
other accessories. Nearly the whole of the floor above the stable and coach- 
house is appropriated as a coachman's residence, which is reached by an 
external stone - staircase. This house includes a parlour and a kitchen, a 
bed-room, and two recesses for beds, attached to the kitchen, as well as a 
small closet and an entrance-lobby. The rooms are 8 feet in height. On 
the same floor is the hay-loft, over the harness-room, with a shoot into 
the stable. 

The cost of the stable, green-house, and other out-buildings, shown on the 
block-plan, together with the high inclosure-walls, was as here stated : — 



Masonry and Brickwork, 
Carpentry, Joinery, and Glazing, 

Slater's work 

Plasterer's „ . 
Plumber's „ . . 

Asphalte „ . . . . 
Ironwork in Stables, . 



£657 17 
221 4 
15 15 



3+ 



26 2 
45 



£1009 19 6 



2 B 



98 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



Entrance Gates. These are shown in the perspective view, Plate LXVI. 
The width of the carriage-entrance, between the bases of the piers, is 11 feet 
8 inches; and the similar dimension of each side- wicket is 4 feet 1 inch. The 
gate-piers are of freestone, and measure 9 feet 10^ inches in extreme height. 
The base-plinth of each is 2 feet 11 inches square on the plan, and 1 foot 8 inches 
in height: the shafts in each are 2 feet 8 inches square, below, and diminish 
to 2 feet 6 inches at the top; whilst each shaft is 7 feet 3 inches in height; 
and the blocking at the top is 1 foot inches square, and 11^ inches in 
height. The gates are made of pitch-pine, and are enriched with mouldings 
and ornaments, partly of the same material and partly of cast-iron. The 
lower pannels, which are bounded by bolection mouldings, are filled-in with 
framing in diagonal lines, formed of pieces 2f inches square, and having 
iron-pateras at the intersections. The upper pannels are filled with anthe- 
mions and other ornament in iron. The height of the gates is 7 feet 9 inches : 
and the thickness of styles and rails is 2-f inches. The cost of the four gate- 
piers was £40; whilst the gates themselves cost £35, 2s. 



THE SYCAMORES, 



OLD TRAFFORD, NEAR MANCHESTER. 

H. J. PAULL, F.R.I.B.A.; 1 ARCHITECTS, 
OLIVEE AYLIFFE; j MANCHESTER. 



PLATES LXXIII. LXXV. 



UR present subject of illustration, " The Sycamores," is a house, 
erected in 1864-5, in Seymour Grove, in Old Trafford — a locality 
situate south-west of Manchester, and which is rapidly assuming 
the character of a suburb of that town. The site of the house, 
and the land immediately surrounding, are flat. The principal front of the 
house looks west, or towards the road, Seymour Grove, which runs north 
and south, that is to say, parallel with the front. The drainage in the 
Grove being at no great depth, the level of the principal floor of the house 
is raised six feet above the surface of the site. 

The house being quite detached, each of its four fronts was studied 
for effective appearance; and there is no "back," as commonly the phrase is 
understood. 

The general character and details of the design, decoratively, may be 
described as modernized domestic-Gothic, of the English variety, subordinated 
to the expression of the chosen materials; of which the most important is 
the red-brick of the locality. There are, however, no arched heads to the 
windows : lintels of stone are substituted ; and some of the windows have 
mullions of the same material: otherwise, in the structure, stone is but 
sparingly used. 

The building was specially contrived so as to get a considerable amount 
of convenience without extended area on the ground. Thus whilst the 
kitchen is on the ground-level, or nearly on the level of the principal floor 




100 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



of the house, there are altogether three storeys in that portion of the 
area, which are practically within the height of two storeys in the other 
division of the plan: though, it is to be observed, one of the three 
storeys, containing one bed-room, is partly within the roof. There are, 
indeed, in the house, seven distinct levels of floor, including a basement proper, 
and an attic over the principal staircase (see the section, Plate LXXV.) There 
are three day-rooms, or reception-rooms, and a conservatory; five bed-rooms, 
to one of which a dressing-room is attached; and the attic, or room entirely 
within roof. The house occupies an area of which the principal dimensions 
are 60 feet from front to back, and 50 feet frontage, not including the pro- 
jection, southwards, of the conservatory. 

Ground Floor. — A grass-terrace extends along the western and southern 
sides of the house, and a portion of the northern; where are the windows of 
the principal rooms. The terrace is reached from the ground around the 
building by two flights of steps; whereof one to the entrance of the house 
is provided with gas-lamps, of ornate design. The terrace being crossed, 
there is an ascent of three steps, under a porch, to the front-door, placed in 
one of the re-entering angles of the plan. The external angle of the porch 
is formed by a stone column carrying a block for the support of one of the 
skew-backs of a pointed-segmental arch, the opposite skew-back being carried 
by the angle of the building. The porch is terminated by a weathered 
coping of masonry. The entrance into the house is, first, into a square vestibule; 
which receives its light through a glazed panel in the door, and through a 
fan-light. Beyond this, but separated by folding-doors in a glazed screen, is 
the hall itself; from which doors, to the right, lead into the dining-room and 
the breakfast-room, and a door to the drawing-room leads to the left. The two 
more important rooms have their principal windows in the front of the house ; 
and each has a smaller window in one of its sides: in the case of the dining- 
room, this latter window has opposite to it that flight of steps by which the 
terrace is reached on the southern side. The large window of the dining- 
room is of three lights; that of the drawing-room is in an octangular bay 
that is carried up to provide for a similar window of the storey above, and 
is covered at the top with a hipped projection from the main-roof. The 
breakfast-room, which, as each of the other rooms, is lighted by windows 
on two sides, has a way out of it into a conservatory; whence there is a 



THE SYCAMORES. 101 

way, down-steps, into the garden. At the end of the hall, opposite the breakfast- 
room door, is the principal staircase, lighted from the north by a large window, 
which is filled with stained glass. Under the stairs are a lavatory and a 
lady's store-room : these form portions of a small addition to the main-building, 
covered by a lean-to roof. In the end of the hall, or opposite the front-door, 
is the door that leads to the kitchen-department, back-staircase, and back- 
entrance. From a landing within this door, a broad flight of steps, six in 
number, leads down to a similar space, where are the kitchen-door, the back- 
door opening into a court-yard, and the way down to the cellars. From the first 
landing, and parallel with the descending flight, is a narrower flight of stairs 
of ascent to the floor of the principal bed-rooms, and thence to the w.c. the 
bed- room of the third storey, and to the attic. This portion of the house 
is lighted by a window over the back-door, as well as by one at the side 
of the door. To the kitchen are attached a small pantry, and a scullery. The 
scullery, furnished with sink and copper, has a door into the court-yard ; close 
to which are the back-door of the premises, an external w.c, and the place 
for ashes— the two last being screened by a wall, so as not to be seen from 
the breakfast-room. The principal rooms on this floor are 12 feet in the clear 
height; the kitchen is 11 feet; and the scullery is 13 feet 6 inches in the 
highest part. 

Chamber Storey. The bed-room over the kitchen is reached from the 
first landing of the principal stairs. The upper or main landing in the one-pair 
floor, of the principal part of the house, has connected with it the back-staircase; 
attached to which is the w.c, entered from a landing three steps above the 
one-pair floor. The principal bed-room, to which the dressing-room is attached, 
has a window looking north, besides the bay-window. On the same floor 
is a room containing a bath and a lavatory; and there is also a housemaid's- 
sink. The principal bed-rooms are 12 feet in the clear height ; that over the 
kitchen is 11 feet. The fifth bed-room, partly in the roof, and 10 feet in the 
highest part, is reached by the back-staircase. In it is the cistern. From the 
landing at the door of this bed-room, there is an ascent to the room that is 
entirely within the roof; and through this attic there is a way into the 
remaining portion of the roof. The attic is lighted through a skylight; and 
it might be used as a bed-room, though not so regarded in this description. 

The Basement contains little more than a larder and the space for coals 



102 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



and wine. Under the conservatory is a potting-house, with a stove : this place 
is reached by steps from the garden. 

The materials used for the walls of the house, and for the greater number 
of the partitions, are bricks. The bricks are of three kinds, namely, the 
"common" bricks of the locality, for the body of the external walls and for 
the partitions; the best pressed red-bricks, for the general work of the facing 
of the fronts; and the best Staffordshire blue-bricks, for portions of the cornices 
and strings. The bricks of the two first kinds were carted about two miles 
to the site. The facing-work was neatly pointed in black mortar, and was after- 
wards pointed with white mortar, in each joint and bed, in thin projecting lines. 

The partitions that are not of brick are of timber-quartering, trussed where 
requisite, and filled in with brick-nogging. A layer of asphalte is laid over 
one of the lower courses of brickwork throughout the area of the building. 
This prevents rise of damp from the ground. To prevent the ingress of damp 
through the walls, all the external walls are hollow: each in fact is as two 
walls, one 9 inches and the other 4^ inches in thickness, having a cavity of 2\ 
inches between, so making up a total of 16 inches thickness; and the work of the 
external and internal faces of the whole is tied together by wrought-iron clips; 
of which there are two to each superficial yard of wall. All the flues are 
circular; though, accidentally, some are otherwise shown in the plans. 

The stone is from the Huddersfield quarries, Yorkshire. 

In the carpenter's work, the timber is the best Memel; and in the joiner's 
work, the materials are Petersburg red-deals and St. John pine. The floor- 
boarding is of tongued-battens. The windows have the ordinary arrangement 
of double-hung sashes. These are glazed with plate-glass, excepting the 
staircase-window, which has stained glass from a design by the architects. 

In this house there are special provisions for ventilation, exclusive of the 
windows. They include fresh-air inlets and escape-outlets to every room. 
Each bed-room has a circular grating, 1 foot 9 inches diameter, in the ceiling, 
below a funnel; from which a pipe is carried upwards into the roof nearly 
to the ridge. Over each grating is a valve, which is worked by a cord 
from the bedside: so that the opening and closing are regulated at will. The 
inlet -opening is near to the ceiling, and is furnished with a valve (one of 
Sheringham's) that is regulated by a cord in the usual manner. The outlets, 



THE SYCAMORES. 



103 



as regards the lower rooms, are into vertical flues, not shown in the plans, 
which pass up next the smoke-flues and terminate in the roof. From the 
roof-space itself, the escape into the open air is by means of lucarnes that 
are shown in the roof-plan (Plate LXXIV.) as well as in Plate LXXIII. 

The roof-covering is of Bangor slates, blue and purple, disposed in varied 
courses and in chevron-forms. The ridges are covered with Staffordshire 
red-tiles, having an ornamental cresting. The valleys are laid with lead. 
The water descends, externally, from iron eaves-gutters, by iron pipes: these 
are shown in the plans, and in the elevations and view. 

It may be here mentioned that the whole of the space under the bath 
and lavatory, and under the housemaid's-sink, is covered with lead, so as to 
prevent leakage through the ceiling of the dining-room which is below. 

The house, originally, was contracted for at £2000 — the works of the different 
trades together; and this may be taken as what under ordinary conditions 
the house itself might have cost, exclusive of grates and chimney-pieces, heating- 
apparatus for the conservatory, and some of the kitchen-fittings, whilst inclusive 
of boundary-fences to the ground. But extras were as follows: — Foundation- 
works (which were heavy in consequence of an old water- course that was dis- 
covered intersecting the site); flooring to the hall (as shown on the plan) of 
Maw & Co.'s tiles, introduced after the house was built, and iron-girders and 
stone-flagging to carry the tiles; elaboration of finishings generally, in the joiner's 
work and the plasterer's, together with change of material for the staircase, 
from pine, to the best English oak; and Clark's patent revolving -shutters to 
all the ground-floor windows : these extras came to a total of £500. Then, gas- 
piping (not fittings), joiner's fittings in closets and store-rooms, kitchen-dressers, 
scullery-shelving, linen-closet, flower-stands in the conservatory, and sundry other 
items, made up £150 more. The chimney-pieces, the grates and ranges, and the 
heating-apparatus of the conservatory came to about £400. The grass-terrace 
cost about £60, with the steps, but without the gas-lamps. Vineries, boundary- 
walling to a kitchen-garden, and divers outbuildings cost £500. So that the 
total cost of the house and its appurtenances was not less than £3610, though 
including much that might be dispensed with in a house with the same provision 
of accommodation, but with fewer provisions for luxury. 



DOUBLE VILLA, 



VICTORIA PARK, MANCHESTER. 
EDWARD WALTERS, ARCHITECT, MANCHESTER. 



PLATES LXXVI. LXXVII. 



LTHOUGH the title of these plates, like the front-elevation in 
the first of them, refers to only two houses, the design and work 
of the architect includes four houses; of which the arrangement is 
.™-.-nt.-. explained by the block-plan in Plate LXXVII. This plan shows 

that there are two similar masses, — connected in the rear by a screen-wall. 
Each half of the entire group, or each double-villa, is the exact counterpart 
of the other; and each house is a counterpart of that to which it is attached, 
— only that the plans are reversed, — excepting that there is a slight differ- 
ence in certain fire-places in the party-wall, and another in the position of 
the entrance-gateways to the court-yards. The houses were erected in the 
year 1852, in Victoria Park, which is in one of the southern suburbs of 
Manchester. The locality is rather fiat, and without any extensive prospect. 
The principal front of the four houses is to the west. 

The general decorative character of the design accords with that later 
Italian manner wherein the high-pitched roof began to play an important 
part; but much of the actual effect of the houses results not only from the 
grouping of the masses, but, in the details, from the decorative treatment 
of varied materials ; which include moulded brick for some of the string- 
courses, and wood for the main-cornices, as well as stone for window-dress- 
ings and in some other parts. 

This example in our series is useful as showing that a large amount of 
accommodation may be provided in a house costing £2000, that is to say, 
with the prices usual not many years ago. 



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DOUBLE VILLA AT VICTORIA PARK. 



105 



Each of these four houses occupies an area, on the ground, that may be 
roughly set down as about 53 feet square ; and each has three storeys, includ- 
ing the underground-basement, in the front of the house, and four storeys 
at the back, as well as at that portion of the plan which is carried up as a 
tower. There are three day-rooms, or reception-rooms; and there are rooms 
in the upper-floors, capable of providing for eight beds (two being in the 
nursery): added to which are two dressing-rooms, each partly in the tower, 
and a bath-room. All the bed-rooms, including those of the attic-floor, are 
good rooms. The staircase is a noteworthy feature, being effective and large 
for the size of the house, and running round three sides of a parallelogram on 
plan. The front- and back-entrances to the house are so disposed, and shut 
off, that there is no draught from one to the other, as there often is in semi- 
detached houses. 

Gbound Floor. — The principal entrance to the house is placed, well 
sheltered within an open porch, at the end of the block of building. The 
door is at right angles with the entrance to the porch itself; which latter 
is reached from a grass-terrace, to which there is a flight of steps of ascent. 
The entrance leads into a side-lighted hall, which has a fireplace; and from 
the hall lead out the door of the morning-room, and the way into the staircase- 
hall, whence lead out the doors of the drawing-room, dining-room, and offices. 
The morning-room and the drawing-room have bow-windows, semi-octagonal, 
and, as regards this storey, very similar to one another; but the projection from 
the drawing-room is carried up to the storey above; whereby there is pro- 
duced a very marked feature in the elevation; whilst a different termination 
is given to the composition in the other case. The dining-room and drawing- 
room look, both, to the road in front of the houses. Attached to the dining-room 
is a china-closet, having a borrowed light from the butler's pantry. The 
arrangements of the shutters to the windows of the principal rooms of this house 
deserve attention, especially as they are part and parcel with the external effect 
produced by breaks and projections. The shutters, in boxings, are so contrived 
as to project little, if at all, into the room: the boxings are inserted in what may 
be considered the thickness of the wall; whilst in the case of the bow-windows 
they are so planned, as to their splays, that there is the least possible obstruction 
to the light entering, and the least heaviness of appearance in the room. These 
features of the houses are shown to an enlarged scale on Plate LXXVII. The 



106 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



way to the offices, from the hall, leads into a space in which are the back-stairs, 
and the doors of the kitchen, the pantry, the main back-entrance of the house, 
(the last-named down three steps,) and the way down to the basement. Here 
also is a cupboard. Leading out from the kitchen is a scullery, with a cook's 
closet attached; and from the scullery there is another way out to the back- 
yard of the house. This description shows that almost all requisites of a 
house for a large family of the middle-class are provided, and at an outlay 
that was small. But everything could not be furnished for £2000. What the 
house most requires, in the opinion of its architect, is a servants'-hall. The 
omission, so to call it, is sought to be remedied by a hot-plate, which there 
is in the scullery, for summer-use. It is placed behind the kitchen-grate, and 
relieves the kitchen somewhat from heat of cooking. 

The height in the clear, on this floor, of the principal rooms, is 11 feet 3 
inches ; whilst the height in the case of the offices is 10 feet 2 inches. The 
principal staircase is shown separately, by two sections ; which will greatly assist 
comprehension of the relation between the upper storeys and the lower. It is 
lighted partly from the top, and partly by two side-windows in the attic-storey. 

The yard has a large archway of entrance to it, with folding-gates. In 
the yard are various conveniences. 

Principal Chamber Floor. — The principal stairs from the ground-floor 
lead up to a landing, which may be considered to form part of that of the 
back-stairs; and from it open the doors of one of the bedrooms, the bath-room, 
and the housemaid's closet. Thence, two steps lead up to the floor-level of the 
principal bed-rooms. These rooms, including the nursery, which is for two beds, 
are four in number, — one of the four having a dressing-room attached. The 
bed-room last referred to could be the principal one of the house ; and the nur- 
sery is close to it. The nursery has one of its windows opening into an external 
loggia, or balcony. These different rooms are connected by an arcaded cor- 
ridor, similar to one in the storey below, and railed in by a wooden balustrade. 
At one end of the corridor is a w.c, which is lighted from the roof. The 
housemaid's closet has a borrowed light from the bath-room. The rooms on 
this floor are, the front rooms, 11 feet in the clear height, and the back rooms, 
about 10 feet 4 inches. 

Attic Storey. — This is reached by the back-stairs. They communicate 



DOUBLE VILLA AT VICTORIA PARK. 



107 



with a balustraded passage-way that goes round three sides of the hall of the 
principal staircase. It gives access to three bed-rooms; out of one of which 
leads a dressing-room. This bedroom, which is two steps up, has one of its 
windows with a loggia, as in the nursery below: the other window affords 
a way to the principal cistern of the house, which is over a portion of the 
nursery. A way out on to the roof of the front-portion of the building, also, 
is provided from the attics. 

Basement. — The underground-storey is indicated in the principal section 
(Plate LXXVII.) It contains the places for storeage of coals, beer, and wine, 
and a larder. The cellars are from 7 feet 8 inches to 7 feet 11 inches in the 
clear height. There is an entrance into the cellars, from the yard, under the 
back-entrance of the ground-floor. 

The external walls of these houses are of the "common" red-bricks of 
the locality, with facings of fire-brick. The base-mouldings and strings are 
formed of the latter description of brick, cast to the form required. The fire- 
bricks were obtained in the neighbourhood. 

The sills, the architraves, and consoles to such of the windows as have 
these features, along with the carved trusses to the pediments of the bay- 
windows, the mouldings forming part with the sills of the windows of the 
principal chamber-floor, the fasciae and moulding forming the lower division 
of the entablature -cornice of the building, and the scroll -supports to the 
terminal feature of the bay-window, are all of Yorkshire stone, polished. 

All the crowning-mouldings of eaves, or cornices,, of the entire building, 
the porch, and the bay-window in the entrance-front : the cornices of the 
pediments of the other front, and the cantilivers to different overhanging- 
eaves, are of wood. Part of the decorative effect, as in window-heads, is 
produced by corbelling the brickwork, and by the introduction of diagonally- 
set bricks in panels. The external walls are built 13^ inches in thickness, 
excepting in the case of the basement, where they are 16 inches, including a 
cavity (2J") to prevent the passage of damp. A course of 3-inch York- 
paving prevents the rise of damp, in the walls, from the ground below. Where 
the external walls span wide openings, as in the case of the bay-windows, 
and where the large cistern occurs, they are carried by iron-girders. The heads 
of the three-light windows of the upper storey, also, are formed with iron lintels; 



108 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



whilst the windows of the tower have iron plates (1-inch metal) carrying the 
brickwork. To each of the gateways there is a strip of 4fts lead in the brick- 
work, or covering the extrados of the arch. 

The internal partition-walls are of common brickwork of 9 inches thick- 
ness, excepting where support below was wanting: in these latter cases the 
ordinary partitions, lathed and plastered on timber-quartering, are used. 

The material used in the carpenter's work and external joiner's work, is 
the best "crown" Baltic timber. The internal joiner's work is of St. John 
pine. The joists are strutted by two rows of herring-bone strutting, with, ordi- 
narily, an iron bolt (1 inch), additional, to each room. 

All the windows have sashes, double-hung, in deal-cased frames. The 
shutters have already been referred to. The cornice of the room is carried 
round the recess of the bay-window, which is flanked by pilasters; and 
above the window there is an enriched frieze, behind which is a space that 
may serve as a blind-box, or for the pole for the curtains, in lieu of the 
ordinary cornice -pole concealing a portion of the architecture of the room, 
and usually destructive of harmony. The windows of the principal rooms 
and the hall, and those of the bedrooms in the front of the house, are glazed 
with plate-glass. The back-windows of the house have 16 oz. sheet-glass; and 
all the other windows have 26 oz. sheet-glass, of Chance's make. 

The roofs, arranged as shown in the plates, are covered with Welsh slates, 
the hips and ridges having rebated ridge-tiles, and the valleys and gutters 
being lined with lead. The high-pitched capping of the tower is finished with 
a cresting in galvanized iron, presenting a monogram of the letters E. R. L. — 
those of the proprietor of the buildings. The gutters, with one exception that 
is shown in the transverse-section of the staircase, are on the eaves; and the 
simple arrangement of these is explained by a separate detail-figure in Plate 
LXXVII. The down-pipes, however, wherever they would interfere with effect 
of the fronts, are placed internally. Their positions are indicated in the plans, 
— although, of necessity, slightly. 

The total cost of the four houses was about £8000, exclusive of screen- 
and garden- walling. Thus each house may be said to have been built for the 
sum already mentioned, £2000. 



ROSEBANK TILL A, 



BARLOW MOOR, NEAR MANCHESTER. 



SPEAKMAN & CHAELESWOETH, ARCHITECTS, MANCHESTER. 



PLATES LXXVIII. LXXIX, 




tARLOW MOOR, where this house was erected in 18(i4, is about 
I eight miles south of Manchester. The site of the building is 
I elevated; and there is an extensive view, over a rich and fertile 
country, from the two principal fronts. These face the south and 
east; where the ground is bounded by two main roads, — one, on the eastern 
side, leading to Northenden, and that on the south being a road from Northern 
to Chorlton, — and is inclosed by a dwarf-wall, in which, near the angle formed, is 
the entrance-gate, of open framework. 

The circumstances of the site may be considered the key-note of the dis- 
tribution of the plan of this house. The entrance is placed in one of the less 
important fronts, or what might be called the rear, and is not far from the 
entrance to the stable-yard; and the most is made of the advantages in the 
other fronts, by the introduction of bay-windows. 

The decorative character of the building may be considered as Italian, 
modified by Gothic features, as in the roof, with its cresting and finials. 

The main-building, or omitting out-buildings, covers an area of ground that 
may be approximately described as consisting of a space of about 61 feet by 
35 feet, with an addition of 24 feet by 15 feet, exclusive of projections. The 
house contains three reception-rooms and a billiard-room, seven bed-rooms (one 
of them with a dressing-room), a bath-room, and a smoking-room, besides a 
complete set of offices. 

Ground Floor. — The principal entrance, on the western side, has a porch, 



110 VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 

constructed chiefly of timber, and reached by steps. It is lighted by a sky- 
light, as well as at the open sides. It leads into a vestibule; attached to 
which is a hat-and-cloak room; and connected with this are a w.c. and a 
second closet. The porch and vestibule are floored with encaustic tiles. The 
vestibule gives access, by folding-doors, to a corridor which bounds one side 
of the principal staircase; where there is a fire-place, in the centre of the 
building. From the corridor open out the doors of the drawing-room, south, 
the dining-room (two doors), the breakfast-room, east, and the butler's-pantry. 
The staircase-hall is lighted by a large window, as well as by a small one 
under the stairs. A door from this hall leads to the servants' entrance, 
kitchen-offices, and back-stairs— these occupying a portion of the plan, at the 
north-west, which includes the projecting piece already mentioned: attached 
to this are the house-yard and out -buildings. The drawing-room and the 
dining-room have, each, a bay-window; and the breakfast-room has a similar 
projection, but lighted from the front only. The two first-mentioned projections 
are carried up to the chamber-storey; whilst the dining-room one is continued 
still higher, or to form part of the attic, including there the smoking-room. 
The staircase is finished in pitch-pine, stained and french-polished, and has an 
ornamental balustrade of the same material. Attached to the kitchen are a 
scullery and a cook's pantry. The flooring, here, is of black and red tiles. The 
tiled floors are laid on brick arches, carried partly by an iron-girder in the 
case of the kitchen. The yard is paved with Yorkshire flags. The out-buildings 
include places for coals and ashes, and a servants' w.c, — these opening from the 
yard,— and another w.c, and a gardener's tool-house, entered from the stable- 
yard; which yard and that of the house have communication with the front- 
garden, by the door which appears in the view. Each portion of the house is 
provided with the requisite fittings, as shown in the plans. The height from 
the ground-floor-line to the floor-line above, is, in the main portion of the house, 
12 feet 6 inches, or say 11 feet 7 inches in the clear; and is in the offices 11 feet 
3 inches, or say 10 feet 4 inches in the clear. 

Principal Chamber-floor. — This contains five bed-rooms (one of them 
lighted by a bay-window), a dressing-room, the billiard-room with large bay- 
window, a bath-room, a linen-closet, . a house-maid's closet, and a w. c The 
three principal bed-rooms are in close connection with the main staircase. 
The height of these rooms, in the clear, may be stated as varying from 10 feet 



EOSEBANK VILLA. 



Ill 



5 inches to 9 feet 8 inches; the height from the floor-line to the line above, 
where there is an attic, being 11 feet 3 inches to 10 feet 6 inches. 

Attic Storey. — Here there are two bed-rooms for servants, a room in which 
is the cistern, and the smoking-room. The smoking-room commands the view 
to the south; and it has a door leading out to a platform (of wooden trellis or 
grating,) on the roof, whence a view is obtained in other directions. This room 
is 9 feet in the clear height, in the highest part. 

Basement. — This storey provides a larder, a wash-house cellar, a store-cellar, 
and two other cellars, each lighted from a sunk area, besides cellars for coals and 
wine. The height in the clear is about 8 feet, or the height to the ground- 
floor line is 9 feet. The wash-cellar is distinct from the rest of the basement, 
and has its own access from the yard by steps. Thus, and by reason of this 
cellar being arched over, there is no annoyance in the living-rooms from the 
internal position of the wash-house. 

The external walls of the house are of brick, built 16 inches in thickness, 
— or made up of an external 9 inches, an interior inches, and a cavity of 
2i inches. The general work is of "common" brick ; and the facing is white brick, 
— the doors, windows, and chimneys having stone dressings. The corbelling under 
the eaves, the three salient courses forming a string between the storeys, and the 
heads of openings that are arched, are in brick. The string-course continuing 
the line of the sills of windows, the filling-in to the balcony of the staircase- 
window, the trusses and mouldings, and the enriched corbels on two of the 
chimney-backs, are of stone. Most of the internal partitions are of brick. 

The bricks were obtained from Dukinfield, about 6 miles from Manchester, 
and the stone was from Hucldersfield, about 26 miles distant — the carriage 
to Manchester being by water. The mortar for both brickwork and stonework 
is composed of Buxton lime and smith's ashes: so that the joints tell black. 
The provision to prevent rise of damp consists of a layer of asphalte. The 
brickwork over the recess of the breakfast- room window is carried by a 
cast-iron girder. 

The timber in all joists, plates, and lintels is American spruce; and in 
the roof it is Quebec pine. The joiner's work throughout is of St. John pine. 
The roofing, arranged as shown on the plan, has ridge-pieces of 7 inches 
by 14 inches, hip-and -valley-rafters 11 by 2 inches, purlins 8 by 6, wall-plates 



112 



VILLA AND COTTAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



4£ by 3, principal-rafters 9 by 5, king-pieces 12 by 5, tie-beams 8 by 5, and 
common-rafters 3 by 2£. The ridges are covered with blue Staffordshire tiles; 
and the hips are covered, and the valleys lined, with lead. The general roof- 
covering is of Bangor slates, each slate 16 inches by 10 inches. The water from 
the roof is conducted, chiefly by eaves-gutters, to 3-inch cast-iron down-pipes 
leading into earthenware drains, but runs to waste, — the supply of water for 
all purposes being obtained from the Manchester Water- Works. 

The gablets in the north and west fronts have rafters, with moulded ends, 
and carried by corbels; and they are terminated by lead-covered hip-knobs. 
Similar features to these last, crown the main roofs, excepting in the case 
of the dormer-window of the smoking-room, where the terminal is of the same 
material as the mouldings, or stone. The cresting to the roof of the smoking- 
room pavilion is of wrought iron ; that to the other roofs is of the tile-ware. 

The windows have sashes, double-hung: these in the principal rooms are 
glazed with polished plate-glass; and the lower rooms have shutters. 

The entire cost of the house, with its appurtenances, so far as shown in 
the engravings,— or exclusive of stables and of the enclosure-walling of the 
garden, — was as here stated: — 

Contract-sums : — 

Excavating and Drains, . . . . . . . . £910 

Brickwork and Masonry, ........ 1060 

Carpenter and Joiner's work (exclusive of shutters); and including 

Iron-girders, 715 

Slater's work, . . . . . . . . . . 73 15 

Plumbing and Glazing, 169 17 

Plastering, Staining, Varnishing, and Painting, . . . . 144 5' 



Extras, &c. : — 

Chimney Pieces and Grates £177 15 

Extra Ornamental Plaster-work; Tinting walls in distemper, fee, . 87 
Extension of Yard Walls, and Out-offices: Excavating, Brickwork, 

and Masonry, .......... 88 17 4 

Do. Plumbing and Glazing; with extra lead-pipe in house, . 29 

Lightning-Conductor, 11110 

Gas-fittings, &c 38 

Joiner's work, extra, in shutters; also Lavatory and fixtures, &c., 127 12 

Do. in extension of Out-offices 20 



£2253 17 



£579 15 4 

Total, . . . £2833 12 4 



CHIMMEY-PIECES: holmwood. cathcart. 

AiOJHOMSOI. ARCHITECTS, GLASGOW. 



Plate LXXX. 




BLACKIE 4= SON. GLASGOW! EDINBURGH fcLOBDOH. 



CHIMNEY-PIECES. 



A. & GK THOMSON, ARCHITECTS, GLASGOW. 



PLATE LXXX. 



HE chimney-pieces here illustrated are in Holmwood Villa, near 
Glasgow, ( which forms the subject of Plates LXVI.-LXXIL, and 
in the description of the house they are referred to in general 
terms. 

The dining-room chimney-piece is of Galway black marble; those in 
drawing-room and entrance-hall are of Italian veined white marble. On 
these chimney-pieces there is not much carving. The greater part of the 
ornamentation is sunk and gilded in the hollows, the cuttings being from |th 
to fths of an inch in depth, and angular or rounded in section according as 
the ornamental forms or the purposes of contrast appeared to suggest. 

The effect of the gilding is much enhanced by the reflection of opposite 
surfaces upon each other, and the whole of it is so well protected from injury 
by being below the general plane of the marble, that, after ten years' wear, 
the gold has lost little or none of its original brilliancy. 

The object in view, in adopting this mode of ornamentation, was to 
establish a harmony between the broad marble surfaces of the chimney-pieces 
and the decorated walls, and also with the various articles of taste usually 
arranged upon the mantel-shelf. Decoration in this manner can be executed 
at a very moderate cost when compared with carving in relief, seeing that 
there is much less work in producing the sunk cuttings, and that the thick- 
ness of marble required is but very little more than what is necessary for a 
plain chimney-piece. 



THE END. 



2P 




GLASGOW: 
W. G. BLACKIE AND CO., PRINTERS, 
V1LL AFIELD.